Search results for bhagavadgita (18)

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The Bhagavad Gita (pronounced: [ˈbʱəɡəʋəd̪ ɡiːˈt̪aː] ( listen)), also referred to as Gita, is a 700-verse Hindu scripture that is part of the ancient Sanskrit epic Mahabharata. Due to its presence in the epic, it is classified as a Smṛiti text. However, those branches of Hinduism that give it the status of an Upanishad also consider it a Śruti or „revealed text“.[1][2] As it is taken to represent a summary of the Upanishadic teachings, it is also called „the Upanishad of the Upanishads.“[3] HERE


Free Will…now in english!


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Advaita Vedanta – Vivekananda, Ramakrishna

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Dakshineswar Ramkrishna Sangha AdyapeathIn 1915, a young Brahmin named Annada Charan Bhattacharya was setting up a successful practice in Ayurvedic medicine in Calcutta. A capable scientist, he had discovered seven patent medicines and went on to become a renowned doctor all over Bengal.

Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (Bangla: রামকৃষ্ণ পরমহংস Ramkṛiṣṇo Pôromôhongśo) (February 18, 1836 – August 16, 1886), born Gadadhar Chattopadhyay (Bangla: গদাধর চট্টোপাধ্যায় Gôdadhor Chôţţopaddhae), was a famous mystic of 19th-century India. His religious school of thought led to the formation of the Ramakrishna Mission by his chief disciple Swami Vivekananda – both were influential figures in the Bengali Renaissance as well as the Hindu renaissance during the 19th and 20th centuries.Many of his disciples and devotees believe he was an avatar or incarnation of God. Ramakrishna was born in a poor Brahmin Vaishnava family in rural Bengal. He became a priest of the Dakshineswar Kali Temple, dedicated to the goddess Kali, which had the influence of the main strands of Bengali bhakti tradition.  Read More: > HERE <

Ramakrishna Math and Ramakrishna Mission are twin organizations which form the core of a worldwide spiritual movement (known as Ramakrishna Movement or Vedanta Movement), which aims at the harmony of religions, harmony of the East and the West, harmony of the ancient and the modern, spiritual fulfillment, all-round development of human faculties, social equality, and peace for all humanity, without any distinctions of creed, caste, race or nationality.

RAMAKRISHNA MATH is a monastic organization for men brought into existence by Sri Ramakrishna (1836-1886), the great 19th century saint of Bengal who is regarded as the Prophet of the Modern Age.

RAMAKRISHNA MISSION is a registered society in which monks of Ramakrishna Math and lay devotees cooperate in conducting various types of social service mainly in India. It was founded by Sri Ramakrishna chief apostle, > SWAMI VIVEKANANDA (vedanta, jnana yoga )< (1863-1902), one of the foremost thinkers and religious leaders of the present age, who is regarded as ‚one of the main moulders of the modern world‘, in the words of an eminent Western scholar A. L. Basham.

The ideology of Ramakrishna Math and Mission consists of the eternal principles of Vedanta as lived and experienced by Sri Ramakrishna and expounded by Swami Vivekananda.  This ideology has three characteristics: it is modern in the sense that the ancient principles of Vedanta have been expressed in the modern idiom; it is universal, that is, it is meant for the whole humanity; it is practical in the sense that its principles can be applied in day-to-day life to solve the problems of life.

The motto of Ramakrishna Math and Ramakrishna Mission is: Atmano mokshartham jagad hitaya cha, „For one’s own salvation, and for the welfare of the world“. The main goals and objectives of these twin organizations, based on the principles of Practical Vedanta, are:

  • To spread the idea of the potential divinity of every being and how to manifest it through every action and thought.
  • To spread the idea of harmony of religions based on Sri Ramakrishna’s experience that all religions lead to the realization of the same Reality known by different names in different religions. The Mission honours and reveres the founders of all world religions such as Buddha, Christ and Mohammed.
  • To treat all work as worship, and service to man as service to God.
  • To make all possible attempts to alleviate human suffering by spreading education, rendering medical service, extending help to villagers through rural development centres, etc.
  • To work for the all-round welfare of humanity, especially for the uplift of the poor and the downtrodden.
  • To develop harmonious personalities by the combined practice of Jnana, Bhakti, Yoga and Karma.

Sarada Devi (Bengali: সারদা দেবী) (1853—1920), born Saradamani Mukhopadhyaya, was the wife and spiritual counterpart of Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, a nineteenth century mystic of Bengal. Sarada Devi is also reverentially addressed as the Holy Mother (Sri Maa) by the followers of the Ramakrishna monastic order. Sarada Devi played an important role in the growth of the Ramakrishna Movement.  Read More: > HERE <

Endearingly known as ‘Holy Mother’, Sri Sarada Devi, the spiritual consort of Sri Ramakrishna, was born on 22 December 1853 in a poor Brahmin family in Jayrambati, a village adjoining Kamarpukur in West Bengal. Her father, Ramachandra Mukhopadhyay, was a pious and kind-hearted person, and her mother, Shyama Sundari Devi, was a loving and hard-working woman.

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The Real Meaning of „ADVAITA“, Vedanta



> Sri Ramana Maharshi Ashram, Message No.141 <

> Advaita Vedanta, Vivekananda, Ramakrishna <

Vedanta (Devanagari: वेदान्त, VedÄnta) was originally a word used in Hindu philosophy as a synonym for that part of the Veda texts known also as the Upanishads. The name is a sandhied form of Veda-anta = „Veda-end“ = „the appendix to the Vedas“. By the 8th century CE, the word also came to be used to describe a group of philosophical traditions concerned with the self-realisation by which one understands the ultimate nature of reality (Brahman). The word Vedanta teaches that the believer’s goal is to transcend the limitations of self-identity. Vedanta is not restricted or confined to one book and there is no sole source for Vedantic philosophy. Vedanta is based on two simple propositions: 1.) Human nature is divine. 2.) The aim of human life is to realize that human nature is divine. READ FULL ARTICLE > HERE <

Advaita Vedanta (IAST Advaita VedÄnta; Sanskrit अद्वैत वेदान्त;  is a sub-school of the VedÄnta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. Other major sub-schools of VedÄnta are Dvaita and ViśishṭÄdvaita. Advaita (literally, non-duality) is a monistic system of thought. „Advaita“ refers to the identity of the Self (Atman) and the Whole (Brahman).

The key source texts for all schools of VedÄnta are the Prasthanatrayi—the canonical texts consisting of the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita and the Brahma Sutras. The first person to explicitly consolidate the principles of Advaita Vedanta was Adi Shankara while the first historical proponent was Gaudapada, the guru of Shankara’s guru Govinda Bhagavatpada. READ FULL ARTICLE >HERE <

The Advaita Vedanta Anusandhana Kendra (Advaita Vedanta Research Center) is dedicated to increasing knowledge of the tenets of Advaita Vedanta–a philosophy and religion based on the Vedas that teaches the non-duality of the individual soul and God–as expressed by its foremost exponent Shankaracharya (whose picture you see above) and the unbroken succession of teachers descended from him.

Die Philosophenschulen – Im Anschluss an die vedische Zeit entstanden in Indien verschiedene Philosophenschulen. Einige davon akzeptierten die Veden als Autorität, diese Schulen werden als orthodox bezeichnet. Andere Schulen lehnten die Veden ab. Dies sind der Buddhismus, die Jaina-Religion und die Charvakas (Materialisten). Von den orthodoxen Schulen sind in spiritueller Hinsicht interessant:

  • Samkhya – diese Schule versucht die Welt möglichst logisch zu erklären.
  • Yoga – baut auf den Theorien des Samkhya auf und liefert eine praktische Methode.
  • Tantra – baut auf den Theorien des Vedanta, bzw. Advaita auf und liefert eine praktische Methode.
  • Vedanta – Vedanta, wörtlich Veda-Ende, bezieht sich also auf die Upanishaden. Deren Botschaft fasste Badarâyana in seinen Vedanta-Sutras äußerst knapp zusammen.
  • Den Ganzen Artikel lesen: > Yoga, Tantra – Samkhya & Vedanta <

International Vedanta Society – Vedanta is a spiritual science that shines light upon our very nature, illuminating the truth that we are all One with God, and that our souls are the divine manifestation of existence, knowledge, and bliss.

This truth is veiled beneath false beliefs that would limit us through fears, doubts and weaknesses. Vedanta uproots this ignorance thereby inviting us to embrace the truth of who we are (omnipresent, omniscient and omnipotent). This universal truth is available to any seeker regardless of religion, culture, or sex.

The core and founder of IVS is Bhagavan. His deep love and concern for others inspired him to pioneer many social welfare activities, even as a child. His passionate quest for truth led him to the holy feet of his master Swami Pavitrandaji Maharaj, and through his teachings, Bhagavan sank into the depths of Nirvikalpa Samadhi, (realization of the Supreme Self) in 1984, and Mahabhava (Supreme Godhood) in 1987. Since that time, Bhagavan has strived to help others attain and taste supreme joy and love.

The life and words of Bhagavan, through truth and love incarnate, offer a shelter for the tired and weary, who return home with peace, bliss, confidence, hope, and life.

The International Vedanta Society (IVS), was formed on November 19th, 1989 through the divine will manifesting in Bhagavan. Commencing its journey from Guwahati in the North Eastern part of India, the society has within a short span spread to various countries throughout the world, through its mediums of love and service. Realization of the Self or God is the key note of IVS. Its members and well-wishers strive continuously to radiate eternal love and bliss.

International Congress of Vedanta was established in 1986 by Professor S.S. Rama Rao Pappu in the Department of Philosophy, Miami University in order to bring together scholars specializing in Indian Philosophies and Religions from all over the world for the study and exchange of ideas and to promote research. In the past eighteen years, fifteen conferences were organized, ten of them at Miami University and five conferences were organized abroad – in Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, and in Rishikesh (Himalayas), Madras, Hyderabad and Visakhapatnam, India.

Centennial celebrations of great Indian philosophers were also held during the Vedanta Conferences – e.g. birth centennial of S. Radhakrishnan in 1988, 1200th anniversary of Sri Sankaracharya in 1990, centennial of Swami Vivekananda’s sojourn to America and his participation in the Parliament of World’s Religions in Chicago in 1992, birth centennial of J. Krishnamurti in 1995, and the 700th anniversary of sanjeewan Samadhi of Sri Jnaneswara in 1996.

Vedanta Congress welcomes for presentation in the conferences research papers in all areas of Indian philosophies and religions.

Though the first Vedanta Conference began with a narrowly focused group for the study of Vedantic texts and their interpretation, the scope of the Vedanta Congress was expanded during the years to include:

  • (a) all major schools of Vedanta (Advaita, Visistadvaita, Dvaita, Suddhadvaita, etc.), Hindu, Buddhist and Jaina Darsanas, Epics, Puranas and Dharma Sastras
  • (b) applied Indian philosophy, dealing with contemporary issues like abortion and euthanasia, war and peace, caste and race, karma and cloning
  • (c) Indian philosophical implications of recent developments in mathematics, life sciences, cognitive science, etc.


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Vedic Guide: “ Bibel, Bhagavad-Gita & Co „

bibel bhagavadgita

The Bible refers to one of two closely related religious texts central to Judaism and Christianity—the Hebrew or Christian sacred scriptures respectively. The Hebrew Bible, composed between the 14th and 5th centuries BCE, is the main source for the history of ancient Israel. The five books of the Torah compromise the legal code and origins of the Israelite nation. The Prophets consist of prophetic and ethical teachings, as well as the historic account of Israel. The Writings such as Psalms and Job are poetic works. Israelite historians presented a picture of the ancient nation based on information that they viewed as historically accurate. Read More: > HERE <

Vortrag und Diskussion mit Shri Sarvabhavana Prabhuji – Vorträge in den Vortragsreihen „Café-Gespräche“ und „Themen-Abende“. Shri Sarvabhavana beleuchtet in seinen Vorträgen Themen aus dem weiten Feld der spirituell-vedischen Philosophie, der Mystik und der Psychologie. Er verbindet dabei uralte vedische Weisheit mit einem sehr bodenständigen Ansatz, der sich darum bemüht, diese spirituell-philosophischen Wahrheiten mit dem praktischen Leben zu verknüpfen.

  • „Bibel, Bhagavad-Gita & Co – Die Bedeutung offenbarter Schriften“
  • „Bhagavad -Gita Abend“ „Lesen in der Bhagavad-Gita“

Seine inspirierenden, tiefgründigen Präsentationen mit seinem ungewöhnlichen klaren Blick auf die komplexen Themen überraschen und regen zum eigenen Nachdenken und zur persönlichen Vertiefung an.

Was ist AUM ? Pranava, Urmantra, Silbe, Matrix….

> Mantra Healing – English <





Tree and our Universe


The Originar of Hatha-Yoga


Tree is the highest evolved form in plant kingdom. Man is the highest evolved species in Animal kingdom. Mushrooms are the best fungi visible on this planet. There is commonality of forms among all these highest evolved forms among different type of life-forms -Tree-like structure.Man is a cerebro-spinal being sheathed within a fleshy body. Most evolved form of cell is neuron that mediates consciousness is Tree-like structure. Surprisingly, most powerful thing that mankind achieved viz. atom bomb , produce Tree-like clouds after exploding on the surface.

Tree-like structure in Nature!

One can find out where else do Tree-like structure in nature exist. Pliny, the Younger linked the eruption of Vesuvius eruption in 79 A.D. with Italian umbrella pine. It is now an established scientific fact that the most powerfur process within earth, volcanic plumes that move inside earth is umbrella-shaped with a column & umbrella spinning about vertical axis( Tree-like). The most terrible force on the surface of the earth are the Tornados which are again Tree-like shapes with a column & an umbrella. Tree-like shape is found in other very powerful phenomena like lightening flashes, electric sparks, river delta, snowflakes, coral .

Tree-like structure is characteristics of every visceral system. Biologists trace this form in the mosses, lichens, shrubs, root system, mammalian lung bronchioles, cells of nervous system, veins & arteries forming cardio-vascular system. Wheresoever there are branching system, that invariably culminate in a Tree-like structure.

Tree & Fractal Geometry

In last fortnight, a brilliant paper was published in ‚Advances in Soft Computing“, under the title“Algorithms for Tree-like Structure Generation“ by Anna Romanowska, a neuro-anatomist et al. The team characterised Tree-like structure as that form which bifurcates but do not form any cycles. The team picked up the concepts of fractal geometry & fused with algorithms to create a Recurrent Algorithm. Self-similarity and repetition of sequence( iteration) is generated by a bifurcating cascade. The team concluded that if living system are generated recurrently, complex organic structures like roots, bronchial system in lungs emerge.

Now that an algorithm for Tree-like structure has been generated, it will be feasible in a decade to manufacture on mass scale silicon bronchial/ cardio-vascular/ neural system .

Before the advent of Fractal geometry by Benoit Mandelbrot during 1970s, the question of Tree-like structure had perturbed many a great minds. Hisao Honda of University of Kyoto published a paper on “ Description of the Form of Trees by the parameters of the Tree-like body“ in the Journal of Theoretical Biology, May, 1971. Honda concluded that Tree architecture maximizes flow access. He found stastitical similarity in living & non-living world, among branching in living system & geological & geophysical system.



Morphic field & Morphic Resonance!

Tree-form is found in lower kingdom of Animal as well as Fungi. Jelly fishes or the polyp, these are invariably shaped like Trees. The colonies of proliferating marine organism replicate this form. It is interesting that jellyfishes which have no neurons & man with maximum neurons are essentially same in shape. Great Scottish biologist, Sir D’Arcy Thompson wrote in 1917 „On Growth and Form“, to analyse patterns & shapes in nature. His erudite tradition sd being carried by Rupert Sheldrake, a British biologist. He has done extensive work on the concept of morphic field & morphic resonance. By morphic resonance, he explains the influence of Like upon Like by which a connection among similar fields is established. He has shown in his work example of crystallization. It is very difficult to crystallize a new compound for the first time. Once it is done, a morphic field emerge. It is easier next time if someone does elsewhere in the world. There is a cumulative influence & it gets easier & easier to crystallize the compound. There is an accelerated rate of crystallization . Similarly, in learning among rats, this phenomena has been experimentally confirmed. It is difficult for a rat to pass through a maze for the first time. But, once a rat does this, another rat elsewhere does it much easily. And with each learning , there is spontaneous spread of new habits. For Sheldrake, evolutionary spread of new habit is not genetic but depends on a kind of collective memory due to morphic resonance.

This can be easily comprehended in case of human. It was very tough to manufacture clock or VCD or computer. More people are manufacturing, easier it is getting to manufacture. Watches, transistora & VCDs are now cottage industry. Who knows in future, robotics will emerge as similar kind of easily handled industry and there will be garages in every nook & corner of city to repair robots or even remodell robots by neighbourhood mechanic.

Sheldrake further proposes the concept of the „Memory of Nature“. Habits of nature depend on non-local similarity reinforcement. Through morphic resonance, the pattern of activity in self-organizing system are influenced by similar patterns in the past. He brings back the idea of Carl Jung‘ collective unconscious.

Examining Growth of Tree-Form!

I find the concept of morphic resonance appealing. That can explain this frequent recurrnce of similar pattern in nature. If we ponder over the shape of DNA & its future. The fluid around earth’s inner core creates a helical movement and generates magnetic field. The geodynamo of the earth is a self-replicating system that help explain the continuity of magnetism in earth’s core , otherwise it would have dissipated within 20,000 years. Now, the transformatory biological molecule,DNA, is helical as well as self-replicating. Within geo-physical processes, we know that Tree-like plumes are created. Now, this geophysical structure resonates throughout future evolution of biological world. For every plume within, there is a tornado on the surface. This first form of powerful process recurs at the level of the most developed categories at various levels, may it be fungi, or plants or animals or cells. And, that form recurs in even man-made powerful processes like atomic explosions.Upon visualizing this sequence, I can very well predict that the most successful biological robots or most efficient spaceship for planetary travels would have Tree-like architecture. Our Discovery spaceship is a poor materialization of that critical architecture.

Tree & bifurcation!

This Tree-like structure itself is generated by recurrent self-similarity which results due to behaviour of a dynamic system. Now, the chaos theorists have worked out very well that how in a dynamic system , a stage of crisis is set in and at the point , there are two possibilities for the system to transform. Sometimes, the system oscillates between two possibilities as found in certain chemical clocks extensively investigated by Nobal laureate Ilya Prigogine.Most of the times, the branches grow further and then bifurcate. This is iteration of self-similarity that later results into Tree-like structures.

If this kind of bifurcaing iteration is fundamental to our changing Reality which is dynamic, and there is morphic resonance, one can draw the contours of this phenomena of emergence of Tree-like structure at a higher level.

End of biological evolution!

The bifurcation, that determines DNA-replication to cell-division, has finally achieved its destiny in the biological world in the form of Human beings. We are the highest biological form and the biological evolution has now concluded. There is no further scope of biological evolution beyond us.Perfect biological bifurcating branching system has been achieved. Our lungs, our cardio-vascular system, neural system .. everything has emerged as mere consequence of cascading bifurcation. Surprisingly, we have greater number of most evolved cells viz. neurons (200 billions) which themselves replicate own form at macrolevel. The cerebro-spinal system is a magnified neuron. We are the only animal to walk on 2 legs. Penguins do perform but lack other binarities. We have two legs, two hands, two nostrils, two ears, two testicles, two mammary glands, two eyes, two kidneys, two hemispheres in brain, two atrium, two ventricles in heart, two excretory points, two lips, two jaws. Our thinking pattern is also binary. Our categories are in twos- good/bad, high/low,sacred/profasne, self/other… We donot yet understand that this duality in thought is rooted in hemispheric brain or in fractal geometry. There is no more bifurcation & branching possible in bodily architecture of human beings. This is the end-point of biological evolution. Now, mankind is on verge of developing biological robots & higher order machine consciousness therby imbuing consciousness to physical world bypassing the biological evolution. We are becoming the co-creator of the Universe as well as agent to accelerate self-consciousness of physical matter in the universe.

Trees are our cousin!

Now, the issue of Tree-like structure resonates into our collective psyche. Tree is the source of wisdom, healing, nourishment, power. Bible myth has Tree . Newton discovered moodern science sitting under an apple Tree. Buddha discovered non-theistic self-awareness sitting under a peepul Tree. In Tibetan tradition, powerful meditation requires visualizing Tree of lineage with various Gurus on different branches. These kind of visualization has transformative effect on our consciousness. In every culture, Tree occupies a significant position in rituals & mythology. We feel special feeling with Tree. Our romantic mood, our wisdom, contemplative mood, aesthetic mood.. orbit around physical & metaphoric Tree. Tree have power to transmit some kind of healing power to us. Tree are the source of healing body through fruits & herbal medicine . Tree heals our body, mind as well as soul, if any. The processes involved may be a kind of morphic reonance that vitalizes self-similar cardio-vascular, respiratory & neural system.Trees are our morphic cousins. We feel guilty & hurt when trees are cut or when those are under environmental threat.


One thing is certain. Future robots & spaceships which would be most efficient to survive would have Tree-like architecture. We would have very little to do with blooming of age of nanotechnology, biotechnology & Artificial intelligence. Successful creation of algorithm for Tree-like structure has made it more likely that artificial human organs can be manufactured at industrial level. When death will be conquered after successful download of Memories & large scale diffusion of bionics, We would have enough time to resonate with biological Trees in solitude & steer mankind towards a spiritual evolution as biological evolution from DNA-pathway has reached a dead end!



Banyan Tree

> <

> Sanskrit Web / Yayurveda, Taithreeya Aryanka <



The Aranyakas/Wald Texte der Veden,  (Sanskrit आरण्यक Äraṇyaka) are part of the Hindu śruti, the four Vedas; these religious texts were composed in Late Vedic Sanskrit typical of the Brahmanas and early Upanishads; indeed, they frequently form part of either the Brahmanas or the Upanishads. „Aranyaka“ (Äraṇyaka) means „belonging to the wilderness“ (araṇya), that is, as Taitt.Ar.2 says, „from where one cannot see the roofs of the settlement“. They contain Brahmana-style discussion of especially dangerous rituals such as the Mahavrata and Pravargya, and therefore had to be learned in the wilderness. They have also served as receptacles of later additions to the Vedic corpus. However, they have nothing to do, as later tradition has it, with Sannyasins or Vanaprasthas and they are not of „mystical“ nature but very close to the Brahmanas proper. Read More: > HERE <

The Taittiriya Upanishad is one of the older, „primary“ Upanishads commented upon by SHANKARA. It is associated with the Taittiriya school of the Yajurveda. It figures as number 7 in the Muktika canon of 108 Upanishads. It belongs to the Taittiriya recension of the Yajurveda and is constituted by the seventh, eighth and ninth chapters of Taittiriya Aranyaka.

The tenth chapter of the same Aranyaka is the Mahanarayana Upanishad. The Taittiriya Upanishad describes the various degrees of HAPPINESS enjoyed by the different beings in creation. Read More: > HERE <

Real Identity of Asvattham tree. It is called “Arasa Maram”

There is some confusion in books about the identity of Asvattham tree. It is called “Arasa Maram” (Ficus religiosa) in Tamil Nadu, Ravi-manu in Telugu, Aruli-mara in Canarese. One calls it a Palm tree; another calls it Pipal (Ficus religiosa-pagoda fig-tree); and yet another calls it Banyan Tree (Ficus Bhengalensis) with the adventitious aerial roots. Both (the latter two) are related to each other. It is a humongous tree with bright green leaves chatting with each other with a pat on the back as they rustle in the gush of wind. It is music to the ears. The breeze sets the leaves dancing in the wind and doing partial pirouette on their spindly petioles. When the wind quiets down, the song and dance stop suddenly.

One thing we know is that it is a cosmic tree. The berry of the Pipal is sweet, and Soma (intoxicant) is prepared from its juice according to some accounts. (There is another claim that says the soma juice comes from a mushroom.) Images of Pipal tree appear on the Harrapan seals. Asvattham is said to be a “body-tree.” “A” is no; “THA” is existence; “Shva” means “after tomorrow:” No existence after tomorrow. It tells us that life is precarious. The body tree itself is imperishable (HAM), because God pervades it.

The tree is rooted in heaven and since its aerial adventitious roots go down to anchor to the earth and Prakrti (matter), we are susceptible to the temptations of evil. The middle branches are the men and the sap that keeps flowing inside and sustaining the branches are the Gunas (modes). Cutting the branches and the aerial roots figuratively depicts transcending the gunas and a move to a higher plane― that of SannyÄsi.

In Chinese lore, the body is compared to the Bodhi tree (Tree of Wisdom). Katha Upanishad 2.3.1: With the root above and branches below the fig tree stands: That is pure, That is Brahman, That is immortal. In It the world rests and no one goes beyond it. The upside down Tree of Life has roots in Brahman: The tree, the roots, the trunk, and the branches represent Manifest Brahman or the phenomenal world of Isvara, matter and beings.

Katha Upanishad describes Manifest Brahman as follows: He is self-born and first-born from the waters (Mula Prakrti, root cause or matter) by an act of meditation. He resides in the cave of the heart of beings and is immanent in all causes and effects. He who knows this knows the Absolute in Him. Verse 2.1.6

It goes on to describe the Mother Goddess. She is Aditi, the Boundless. She is born as Prana (Breath or life) from the Absolute genderless Brahman, the nameless, and the formless. She is the Devatamayi (Mother of gods) and the soul of all beings. She stands in the inner recess of the heart. Verse 2.1.7

The Buddha attained enlightenment under the Bo tree; Bo is short for bo-gaha, tree of wisdom; Bo tree is Pipal or Banyan tree; Bo is wisdom, Bodhi is enlightenment, Buddhi is knowledge and the Buddha is he who attained enlightenment. Bodhisattva is potential Buddha meaning that the aspirant has wisdom (enlightenment) and virtue (Bodhi + Sattva).


Krishna states that He is Asvattha tree among trees. Jesus Christ says that he is the true vine. It appears the trees have souls from what Lord Krishna and Jesus Christ say. Why are we cutting them indiscriminately and depleting our forests?

Sage Narada cursed the two sons of Kubera to become trees for knowingly playing naked in the shoal of a river with Ghandarva women. (You thought that having a shower mate is a modern phenomenon: not so from what you read here.) The young women in a turn of modesty put on their clothes while the Kubera’s sons ignored the sage, who cursed them to become trees for their feral nature, arrogance, insolence, and ignorance; Krishna released their souls and bodies after one hundred divine years by uprooting the trees.

Krishna drank water from River Sarasvati, sat, and meditated under Asvattha (Pipal) tree in a reclining position, before his departure to Goloka, Bhagavata Purana 3.4.3 and 8. River Sarasvati went dry before 1900 B.C. At present Sarasvati River features as a pentimento from satellite earth images.

Mantra Pushpam – Vedic Hymns

This mantra is from Taithreeya Aranyakam of Yajur Veda

Asva, meaning horse, is the root word for Asvattha, the tree; Asvamedha, horse sacrifice; Asvatthaman, he who cried like a horse at birth; Asvatthaman, the elephant; Asvini, the wife of Asvins, who took the form of a mare; and Asvinikumaras, the sons of Asvini-the sons of a mare. Asvattha tree gained such name because people used the tree’s shade as shelter for horses. Professor Bokonyi of Hungary an expert in the anatomy of horses tells that the true horses were present in Kutch area during the late Harappan period. The Aryans migrated from India in several waves to Iran to Caucasus riding on the horses as early as 4000 B.C. Rg Vedic civilization was before 5000 B.C. Indo-European languages have loan words like Aspa, Aihva, aszva, aspa, asa, iss, issi, issia, assa, sisu, equus. Where did they originate from? Yes, from Sanskrit. Let us look at another view. Domestication of horse: the credit goes to Akkadians; that is one view. The majority opinion is that the Indo-Aryan was the first domesticator of the horses. They wrote the first manuals for horse training.

Between 2000 B.C. and 1700 B.C. the Aryans (the late comers) in Babylon domesticated the horses which were then called the ass of the East. The horse was later introduced in Egypt before 1580 B.C. The Aryan victory march was attributed to tamed fast horses and chariots.

Sri Swami Satyananda Saraswati calls this tree The Mystical Tree. He says that this imperishable tree has roots above and branches below. The human body, according to him, resembles the upside-down tree in that the brain forms the root structure; the spinal column, the tree trunk; and the leaves, the thoughts, emotions and distractions. The occult truth and the secret knowledge of the Mystical Tree cannot be understood until the aspirant gets spiritual awakening.

Let me touch upon the significance of tree in Christianity. As you see Krishna’s image on the cosmic tree, it reminds us of Jesus Christ on Holy Rood, the tree of immortal life, and he is himself the fruit of the tree. Jesus on the cross, the Buddha under the tree, and Krishna on the cosmic tree–my interpolation, are the same figures. Page 107 The Power of Myth, by Joseph Campbell. Joseph Campbell, the universal man, sees oneness in Jesus Christ and the Buddha. Campbell is one among the rarest of breeds who knows the essence of (a generic) religion. He can see through the apparent differences among the religions and find the common Truth.

15.2: Its branches extend downwards and upwards nourished by Gunas, with sense objects as shoots or sprouts; and its roots extend downwards to the world of men, bound to karma.

The tree has many adventitious roots, coming down from the tree branches; the wider the tree grows the more adventitious roots there are. These adventitious roots, compared to ego, ignorance and vasanas supporting the heavy branches grow down, while the cosmic roots of the tree trunk grow towards heaven and anchor in Brahman. The lower branches are synonymous with human beings, animals, birds, reptiles, worms, insects, and insentient and immovable matter. The upper branches are comparable to Ghandarvas, yaksas, gods, and goddesses.

The sap of Gunas nourishes the branches, the product of Prakrti; the sap flowing through the upper branches contains Sattva (goodness and virtue), while that of the lower branches comparable to animals, contains Tamas (ignorance and delusion). The middle branches are the men with varying combinations of the Gunas and thrive by the sap of Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas in varying combinations. The adventitious roots of the middle and lower branches represent bondage of the human beings and animals. The lateral branches are the sense objects, namely sound, vision, smell, taste, and touch; the growing ends of lateral branches are the ears, eyes, nose, mouth, and skin; the leaves representing the Vedas reach for the sun and illumination from God.

The adventitious roots originate from branches, which draw nourishment from Gunas: they are extensions of these branches and therefore of the gunas, which are responsible for the way men behave. The adventitious roots or the gunas anchor to Prakrti and bind the jivatma to karma and therefore to SamsÄra. In this world of beings, man has the most opportunity to advance to a higher state, fall to lower state, or remain in the same state. The animals are born in the lower state because they have to resolve the prÄrabda (past) karma inherited from the past life; they do not accumulate new karma in the present life because their acts are commensurate with their animal traits; and they are incapable of making informed choice from Sattva, Rajas, or Tamas. But, man on the other hand can accumulate new karma because he can choose his (thought), word, and deed.

Krishna in his discourse in The Uddhava Gita, Dialogue 7.21-7.24 describes the Tree of Life. (based on translation by Swami Saraswati.)

The tree of Samsara bears flowers and fruits; good and bad deeds are its seeds; desires are its deep roots; Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas are its support; earth, water, fire, air, and ether are its five secondary branches through which five kinds of sap (smell, taste, sight, touch and hearing) flow. The five branches fork into ten branches: five motor organs, five sensory organs plus the mind. Two birds (The Supreme One and Ahamkara) live in their nests in the branches. The bark has three layers, the three humors of the body: wind, bile and phlegm. The tree bears two fruits: joy and sorrow. Some eat the fruit of sorrow; some on right path eat the fruit of joy. Krishna tells Uddhava to cut down the tree and free the Self, identifying himself with the Self.

15.3: Neither its form nor its end nor its beginning nor its support is seen. Having cut this firm-rooted Asvattham tree by the strong weapon of detachment…

15.4: Thereafter, seek out that goal, attaining which one does not return again. Surrender to the (first and) Primal Person from whom the ancient manifestation comes forth.

We have to cut the adventitious roots to prevent lowermost branches from getting the sap of Tamas (darkness and delusion); then we have to cut the adventitious roots, which supply the Rajas sap (motion and passion) to the middle branches; now we are left with the upper branches (and their adventitious roots), whose sap is Sattva (goodness, virtue, and calmness). To attain to Brahman, we have to transcend all three Gunas and therefore have to cut the tree, roots, and all. The tree represents the nonself or Prakrti, and we have to separate the JivÄtman from Prakrti, so it merges with the Higher Self.

Let me explain what attaining to Brahman means. It points to a certain quality of life and behavior. It is simply not having the didactic knowledge of the Holy Scriptures; it is not simply the rituals alone. Dharma, duty; sama, equanimity; dama, self-control; vairÄgya, indifference to worldly objects; uparati, desisting from sensual enjoyment; sraddhÄ, faithfulness; and atha, “much more or more over,” (auspiciousness, authority, flair and divine grace) are the preconditions for reaching Brahman. The fit person is the one who knows his Vedas, has the attributes (described above), and is devoted to the Lord only and detached from the world.

  • Dharma
  • Sama
  • Dama
  • VairÄgya
  • Uparati
  • SraddhÄ
  • Atha
  • Duty
  • Equanimity
  • Self-control
  • Desirelessness
  • Abstinence
  • Faithfulness

SraddhÄ is implicit faith in Hindu Holy Scriptures. “Atha” has no English equivalent and means “much more” or “more over” meaning auspiciousness, authority, flair, and divine grace.

15.5: The wise ones, without false pride and delusion, having vanquished the evil of attachment, eternally devoted to the Supreme Self, divorced from passion (KÄmÄh), free from dualities of HAPPINESS and distress, and delusion, reach the eternal state. ( Suka and Dukha = þýÀõ (Inbam) and ÐýÀõ (Thunbham) = HAPPINESS and distress.)

SRI ADI SANKARA, Yoga, Books, Arts, Studies


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Adi Shankara ( DevanÄgarÄ: आदि शङ्कर, Ädi Śaṅkara, pronounced [aːdi ɕaŋkərə]); (788 CE – 820 CE), also known as Śaṅkara BhagavatpÄdÄcÄrya and Ädi ŚaṅkarÄcÄrya, was an Indian philosopher who consolidated the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta, a sub-school of Vedanta. His teachings are based on the unity of the soul and Brahman, in which Brahman is viewed as without attributes. He hailed from Kalady of present day Kerala. Shankara travelled across India and other parts of South Asia to propagate his philosophy through discourses and debates with other thinkers. He founded four mathas („monasteries“), which helped in the historical development, revival and spread of Advaita Vedanta. Adi Shankara is believed to be the organizer of the Dashanami monastic order and the founder of the Shanmata tradition of worship.

His works in Sanskrit, all of which are extant today, concern themselves with establishing the doctrine of Advaita (Nondualism). He also established the importance of monastic life as sanctioned in the Upanishads and Brahma Sutra, in a time when the Mimamsa school established strict ritualism and ridiculed monasticism. Shankara relied entirely on the Upanishads for reference concerning Brahman and wrote copious commentaries on the Vedic Canon (Brahma Sutra, Principal Upanishads and Bhagavadgita) in support of his thesis.

The main opponent in his work is the Mimamsa school of thought, though he also offers some arguments against the views of some other schools like Samkhya and certain schools of BUDDHISM that he was familiar with. Read More: > HERE <

Scholastische Phase des Yoga
Diese Phase beginnt mit Shankaracharya (788-820 n. Chr.), der den Vedanta systematisierte und die besten Teile von Samkhya, Yoga und Buddhismus in den Vedanta integrierte. Nach ihm kamen andere Lehrer, die das Prasthana-Trayam anders verstanden, und konkurrierende Vedanta-Schulen gründeten. Advaita-Vedanta – diese von Shankara vertretene Auslegung sieht alle wahrgenommenen Unterschiede der phänomenalen Welt als unwirklich an. Alles was existiert ist nichts anderes als Brahman; doch Brahman hat keine Teile oder Unterschiede in sich. Die wahrgenommenen Unterschiede sind wie eine Fata Morgana. Mehr Lesen/Read More: Here <

Adi Sankaracharya’s Soundarya Lahari, Translated by P. R. Ramachander: Introduction: Soundarya Lahari meaning waves of beauty consists of two parts viz. Ananda Lahari meaning waves of happiness (first 41 stanzas) and Soundarya Lahari(the next 59 stanzas). It is believed that Lord Ganesha himself has etched the Ananda Lahari on Mount Meru(Some people believe that Sage Pushpa Dhantha did the etching).

It was read from there by Sage Gouda Pada who taught it to Adhi Sankara. Adhi Sankara himself added the rest of the 59 stanzas and completed it.

These 100 stanzas are supposed to be the foremost among Manthra literature. It is also believed that by Making suitable Yanthras ( in west also known as „mandalas…“)  and reciting particular stanzas and worshipping the yantras almost anything can be obtained in the world .

There are more than 36 commentries to Soundarya Lahari written in Sanskrit itself. Of them the most famous is that written by Lakshmi Dhara alias Lalla, His commentary is used to understand the meaning of the different verses. Though there are large number of translations and commentaries of Soundraya Lahari available this is perhaps the first time an attempt is made by a mere novice to translate them in to English verse. The aim is to bring to the notice of the devotes who know English better than other languages , the majesty of the medium of worship called >Soundarya Lahari<.  A transliteration in roman script is also given. May all those who read this be drenched forever by this “Wave of happiness”. 

San Franciso Internet Archive

The Internet Archive San Francisco:

The Internet Archive is a 501(c)(3) non-profit that was founded to build an Internet library. Its purposes include offering permanent access for researchers, historians, scholars, people with disabilities, and the general public to historical collections that exist in digital format. Founded in 1996 and located in San Francisco, the Archive has been receiving data donations from Alexa Internet and others. In late 1999, the organization started to grow to include more well-rounded collections.

Now the Internet Archive includes texts, audio, moving images, and software as well as archived web pages in our collections, and is working to provide specialized services relating to training, education, or adaptive reading or information access needs of blind or other persons with disabilities.

Extraordinary Personalities Reflect On The Bhagavad-Gita: > HERE <

Albert Einstein, Mahatma Gandhi, Dr. Albert Schweizer, Aurobindo, Carl Jung, Prime Minister Nehru, Herman Hesse, Vivekananda, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Paramahamsa Yogananda, Rudolph Steiner, Adi Shankara, Aldous Huxley, Ramanuja, Bhaktisiddhanta Saraswati Srila Prabhupada, Baladeva Vidyabhusana, Madhvacarya, and Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.

Bhaja Govindam is a very popular 8th century Hindu devotional composition in Sanskrit composed by Adi Shankaracharya. This work of Adi Shankara underscores the view that devotion to God, Govinda, is a vastly important part of general spirituality. This work is generally considered a good summary of Advaita Vedanta.


It is said that Shankara was walking along a street in Varanasi one day, accompanied by his disciples. He heard an old scholar teaching his grammatical rules. Taking pity on him, he went up and advised him not to waste his time on grammar at his age but to turn his mind to God in worship and adoration. The Hymn to Govinda was composed on this occasion. Besides the refrain of the song beginning with the words „Bhaja Govindam“, Shankara is said to have sung twelve verses, hence the hymn bears the title „Dvadasamanjarika-Stotra“ (A hymn which is a bunch of twelve verse-blossoms). The fourteen disciples who were with the Master then are believed to have added one verse each. These fourteen verses are together called „Chaturdasa-manjarika-Stotra“ (A hymn which is a bunch of fourteen verse-blossoms).

The refrain „Bhaja Govindam“ which defines the composition and gives it its name invokes the almighty in the aspect of Vishnu; it is therefore very popular not only with Sri Adi Shankaracharya’s immediate followers, the Smarthas, but also with Vaishnavas and others. There is a story attached to the composition of this Hymn. Please Note: Being a lady > M.S.Subbalakshmi < omitted few verse which are not included in this application.


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Dr. Georg Feuerstein (born 1947) is a German-Canadian Indologist specializing on Yoga. Feuerstein has authored over 30 books on mysticism, Yoga, Tantra, and Hinduism. He has translated, among other traditional texts, the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali and the Bhagavad Gita. Feuerstein moved to England to do his postgraduate research at Durham University and subsequently lived for 23 years in the United States. Today, he is a resident of Canada and lives in Saskatchewan. Read more: > Here <

Any student of Yoga will want to know more about not only the practices of Yoga but also its history and spirituality. One of the best places to turn is to Georg Feuerstein’s acclaimed Shambhala Encyclopedia of Yoga. With more than 100 illustrations (such as the many asana postures and chakra centers) and entries on everything from the Bhagavad Gita to Swami Vivekananda and from the Aryan invasion theory to biofeedback, you can’t go wrong.  

Extensive cross-references also facilitate searches for both English and Sanskrit versions of terms. The Shambhala Encyclopedia is a complete yet concise guide to the galaxy of Yoga. Any student of Yoga will want to know more about not only the practices of Yoga but also its history and spirituality. One of the best places to turn is to Georg Feuerstein’s acclaimed Shambhala Encyclopedia of Yoga. With more than 100 illustrations (such as the many asana postures and chakra centers) and entries on everything from the Bhagavad Gita to Swami Vivekananda and from the Aryan invasion theory to biofeedback, you can’t go wrong. Extensive cross-references also facilitate searches for both English and Sanskrit versions of terms. The Shambhala Encyclopedia is a complete yet concise guide to the galaxy of Yoga. ´

The Shambhala Encyclopedia‘ is a must for anyone interested in this complex and lively tradition, and will be a valuable reference by which to gauge the ongoing invention of American yoga. (Beliefnet, May 2000)

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Dr. E. Shaji Raj

Dr. E. Shaji Raj,




> YOGA <  > TANTRA <

Centuries ago, the enlightened masters, in search of spiritual solace, composed the Ayurveda, for the welfare of humanity. According to the scriptures, the human body is made up of 72000 channels connected to the seven spiral energy centers, the diseases of body and mind, which in turn block the path to spiritual enlightenment. The Panchakarma treatment aims at cleansing these channels, pacifying the disease and nourishing the body. It provides longevity, immunity against the disease, whereas in ancient times Yoga, Astrology, Tantra, and Ayurveda were practiced not for longevity but as an ultimate path to enlightenment.

In those ages Ayurveda and self-realisation were cognate and the people held this science in veneration. In the present world it is seen as merely a tool to cure human ailments. More over the practitioners of Ayurveda were Yogis, who would hold the stretched arms of the patients in their hands locate the pulse points and close their eyes as if in a deep trance. Seconds later, they would recount the diagnostic findings one by one. They never had any clinical laboratory or any other technological devices. The innate propensity of certain punarjanis were so splendid that it could work wonders to cure the diseases.

The physician:

Inspired by the findings of the Ayurveda masters we have formulated a system of treatment at ‚Punarjanis‘ bringing the ancient teachings to the limelight in an attempt to serve humanity. We focus on patients with chronic intractable ailments where routine medicine is only palliative.

Dr. E. Shaji Raj, a disciple of Bhramashri Parabattaraka Ananganandanathan Padathirtha, completed his > BAMS < from Madras University. Hailing from a family of traditional Ayurvedic physicians, he has been doing active research in the field of healing for the past 16 years – primarily related to raising energy from the lower center of the body to the higher center. He is one among the few ayurvedic physicians around the world who practice pulse reading and panchakarma treatment.

Incorporating the philosophy and the gist of Ayurveda with the root idea of Tantra and Yoga, the final result is not just cure, but a sea change – a path to enlightenment and bliss. The results have been amazing – an enlightened mind in a sound body.

Adi Shankara:

Adi Shankara (Malayalam:ആദി ശങ്കരന്‍, DevanÄgarÄ: आदि शङ्कर, Ädi Śaṅkara, pronounced [aːd̪i ɕaŋkərə]); (788 CE – 820 CE), also known as Śaṅkara BhagavatpÄdÄcÄrya and Ädi ŚaṅkarÄcÄrya, was an Indian philosopher who consolidated the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta, a sub-school of Vedanta. His teachings are based on the unity of the soul and Brahman, in which Brahman is viewed as without attributes. He hailed from Kalady of present day Kerala.

Shankara travelled across India and other parts of South Asia to propagate his philosophy through discourses and debates with other thinkers. He founded four mathas („monasteries“), which helped in the historical development, revival and spread of Advaita Vedanta. Adi Shankara is believed to be the organizer of the Dashanami monastic order and the founder of the Shanmata tradition of worship.

His works in Sanskrit, all of which are extant today, concern themselves with establishing the doctrine of Advaita (Nondualism). He also established the importance of monastic life as sanctioned in the Upanishads and Brahma Sutra, in a time when the Mimamsa school established strict ritualism and ridiculed monasticism. Shankara relied entirely on the Upanishads for reference concerning Brahman and wrote copious commentaries on the Vedic Canon (Brahma Sutra, Principal Upanishads and Bhagavadgita) in support of his thesis. The main opponent in his work is the Mimamsa school of thought, though he also offers some arguments against the views of some other schools like Samkhya and certain schools of Buddhism that he was familiar with.

Read More here : > HERE <


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> The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda/Jnana-Yoga <

Swami Vivekananda (Bengali: স্বামী বিবেকানন্দ, Shami BibekÄnondo; Hindi: स्वामी विवेकानन्द, SvÄmi VivekÄnanda) (January 12, 1863–July 4, 1902), born Narendranath Dutta is the chief disciple of the 19th century mystic Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa and the founder of Ramakrishna Mission. He is considered a key figure in the introduction of Vedanta and Yoga in Europe and America and is also credited with raising interfaith awareness, bringing Hinduism to the status of a world religion during the end of the 19th century. Vivekananda is considered to be a major force in the revival of Hinduism in modern India. He is best known for his inspiring speech beginning with „sisters and brothers of America“, through which he introduced Hinduism at the Parliament of the World’s Religions at Chicago in 1893.

Swami Vivekananda was born in an aristocratic Kayastha family of Calcutta in 1863. His parents influenced the Swami’s thinking – the father by his rational mind and the mother by her religious temperament. From his childhood, he showed inclination towards spirituality and God realization. While searching for a man who could directly demonstrate the reality of God, he came to Ramakrishna and became his disciple. As a guru, Ramakrishna taught him Advaita Vedanta and that all religions are true, and service to man was the most effective worship of God. After the death of his Guru, Vivekananda became a wandering monk, touring the Indian subcontinent and getting a first-hand account of India’s condition. He later sailed to Chicago and represented India as a delegate in the 1893 Parliament of World Religions. An eloquent speaker, Vivekananda was invited to several forums in United States and spoke at universities and clubs. He conducted several public and private lectures, disseminating Vedanta, Yoga and Hinduism in America, England and a few other countries in Europe. He also established Vedanta societies in America and England. He later sailed back to India and in 1897 he founded the Ramakrishna Math and Ramakrishna Mission, a philanthropic and spiritual organization. Swami Vivekananda is regarded as one of India’s foremost nation-builders. His teachings influenced the thinking of other national leaders and philosophers, like Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, Aurobindo Ghosh, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, and Rabindranath Tagore.


Jnana Yoga according to Bhagavad Gita:

The aim of this article is to introduce the concepts of Jnana Yoga or the path of knowledge/wisdom in the light of the Bhagavad Gita…I will introduce only a few verses from the Gita to emphasize the approach to Jnana marga…at the same time, we will see practical methods for Jnana Yoga….The Gita is eminently a practice manual too.!


The Hindu approach to spiritual evolution leading to liberation or moksha or Self-realization is one of the four major paths or yogas:

  • the path of knowledge or Jnana yoga,
  • the path of mind control or Raja Yoga ,
  • the path of devotion of Bhakti yoga and
  • the path of action/work or Karma yoga.

This is the common mode of classification, mostly derived from Swami Vivekanada’s lectures. Other yogas are minor variations of these four .

Of these, Bhakti Yoga and Karma Yoga have been given less importance in former times. The path of Knowledge, with focus on Hindu philosophy, has been in the forefront since the Vedic times…Some advaitins [non-dualists] would maintain that Karma yoga and Bhakti Yoga are preparatory steps or stepping stones [to purify the mind, chitta shuddi] and final liberation is possible only due to acquisition of Jnana or by Jnana Yoga as the final entry gate….[This was the stand taken by Shri Adi Sankara in Vivekachudamani too.]

The Jnana yoga is intellectually satisfying with abstract reasoning and can be devoid of rituals and formal worship of idols and symbols ;it is non-sectarian and asserts that the indwelling Soul or Atman and Self is the same in all.All these appeal to those who have a dislike for formal worship with rituals.[Yet devotion to Guru is essential in the Hindu context.]

Be that as it may, there are many saints and sages who would maintain that Bhakti yoga alone or Karma plus Bhakti is enough for final emancipation! I do not wish to dwell on this here because I have discussed this in greater detail in one of my books. [Refer: the Essence of the Bhagavad Gita…Pustak Mahal, New Delhi]

The significance of Jnana Marga

Among the four paths or yogas, Jnana marga is considered as the ‘direct’ path . If you consider the spiritual effort as that of climbing a mountain and reaching the summit, Jnana is like rock climbing without detours and winding roads.

Bhakti yoga can be likened to a sloping ,winding road leading to the summit and Raja yoga is like taking steep steps over rough stones. Thus Raja yoga is more difficult than Bhakti and Jnana is the most difficult of all.

Jnana yoga is admittedly difficult and certainly is meant for ‘dhiras’ –accomplished intellectuals with tremendous power of concentration for deep meditations on the abstract Self or Atman or Brahman. It is like rock climbing , with lot of training from expert mountain climbers and those with good physique…not for weaklings!…snd thode with ascetic bent of mind..

Therefore over the ages, there have been very few real jnanis .We are thrilled by the lives of great Jnanis or sages like Bhagawan Ramana or Sadashiva Brahmendra, Thayumanavar or Nisargadatta….again how many disciples they had who reached those heights?..may be a few again.

Bhagawan Ramana Maharshi stated that Jnana and the path of Self-enquiry or atma-vichara are really easy to encourage novices; , but among those who tread this path, many have fallen on the wayside many times. When you climb a rock face, a single mistake will result in crash to the bottom.!

I am not counting here excellent philosophers who may expound on the philosophy or nonduality [Advaita] and give lectures/satsanghs, but only those who have had deep experience of the Self; or reached Samadhi states.

It is safe to say that the path of Knowledge or Jnana is pretty difficult for this materialistic age, when ascetic methods are not even understood or appreciated, in the highly commercial atmosphere we live in.

What Jnana Yoga entails?

Swami Vivekananda had beautifully explained this path in his lectures, compiled into the book— ‘Jnana Yoga’ , published by Advaita Ashrama/RK mission/Vedanta societies.. I do not wish to elaborate on these, but point out a few things.

Jnana path entails two things: Viveka or discrimination and Vairagya or dispassion.

Viveka means distinguishing between unreal things [the phenomenal world, world of change ] and the Real, that is permanent [Self/Atman/Brahman].To get Viveka one may require intellectual analysis, cogitation, reflection and discussion….Satsangha would help ,but would not be always sufficient.

Vairagya or dispassion is to difficult to achieve…this is nonattachment to things of this world…little by little at first—the practice of sacrifice and renunciation….monkhood with severing of ties, with family ,society ,abandoning one’s property and possessions…Bhagwan Buddha [Sakyamuni], St Francis and Bhagwan Ramana are rare examples….Many jnanis may attain this stage in slow degrees too…

It is alright to talk of being in the world ,not of the world’ in a rhetorical sense, but not easy to practice…many so called Jnanis that I have come across still maintain contact with their kith and kin and friends , maintain personal bank accounts, own property—thereby making a mockery of real renunciation or sannyas in Indian /Hindu framework.

There are instances of great Jnanis making the break suddenly in a moment of intense vairagya or renunciation;they serve as beacon-lights for others and exemplify this path.

Let me add that in the Hindu context, only those who exhibit intense Vairagya would be respected in the Hindu society and acknowledged as real Jnanis, not those who profess enlightened state or give wonderful lectures or self-styled gurus.

A Jnani ,by definition ,has attained a state of equanimity or samatva;he looks upon pain and pleasure, friends and foes, glory and ignominy ,heat and cold, in the same light, without any feeling whatsoever. In other words, he does not exhibit attachment [ragha] or aversion [dvesha] against any one or any particular thing.

The message of the Bhagavad Gita.

Now let us turn to a few verses from the Gita.

The verses are most beautifully told in chapters 2,3,4,& 5.

  1. That calm man who is the same in pain and pleasure ,whom these cannot disturb, alone is able to attain to immortality—O Arjuna. [2-15]
  2. The Unreal never is. The real never is not.Men possessed of the knowledge of the Truth fully know both of these. [2-16]
  3. This verse is the distilled essence of non-duality or advaita.
  4. That by which all this is pervaded—that know for certain to be indestructible. None has the power to destroy this Immutable.[Self/Atman] [2-17]
  5. Being steadfast in Yoga, perform actions , abandoning attachment, remaining unconcerned as regards success and failure. This even-minded is known as Yoga..[2-48]
  6. Endued with this evenness of mind, one frees oneself in this life, alike from vice and virtue; devote thyself, to this yoga….Yoga is the very dexterity of work. (skill in action) [2-50]
  7. Attachment [ragha] and aversion [dvesha] of the senses for their respective objects [of the senses] are natural; let none come under the sway; they are his foes. [3-34]
  8. As fire is enveloped by smoke, as a mirror by dust, as an embryo by the womb, so is It covered by that [desires]. [3-38]
  9. That man who lives devoid of longing, abandoning all desires, without the sense of “I” and “Mine” , he attains to peace. [2-71]
  10. Mahatma Gandhi attached great importance to chapter 2 and chapter 3 of the Gita and also the latter portion of Ch 2 –verses 58-72 on the man of steady wisdom.
  11. Whose actions are all devoid of plan [sankalpa] and desire for results, and whose actions are burnt by the fire of knowledge, him, the sages call wise. [4-19]
  12. Verily there exists nothing in this world as purifying like knowledge. In good time, having reached perfection in yoga, one realizes that [knowledge]oneself in one’s own heart.. [4-38]
  13. The place which is reached by the Jnanis is also reached by the karma yogis .He who understands knowledge and performance of actions as the same alone sees.(understands).
  14. To those whose ignorance is destroyed by the knowledge of the Self—that knowledge of theirs, like the Sun, reveals the Supreme. [5-16]
  15. Those who have their intellect absorbed in That, whose self is That, whose steadfastness is That, whose consummation is That, their impurities [sins] cleansed by knowledge, they go whence to non-return. [Moksha] [5-17]
  16. With the heart unattached to external objects, he realizes the joy that is in the Self. With the heart devoted to the meditation of Brahman, he attains unending happiness.[5-21]

A careful study of these verses will clarify many things relating to Jnana Yoga.

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Bettina Bäumer Die Wurzeln des Yoga

 >> Die Wurzeln des Yoga << 

Die klassischen Lehrsprüche des Patanjali 

von Bettina Bäumer

>> P A T A N J A L I <<

YOGA & AYURVEDA von Vinod Verma <

Patanjalis Yoga-Sutras und ihre Anwendung auf Ayurveda

Patanjali (Sanskrit, पतञ्जलि, Patañjali, [pʌtʌɲʤʌlɪ]) war ein indischer Gelehrter, der die heute noch vollständig überlieferten Yoga-Sutras verfasst haben soll. In der indischen Mytholgie gilt er als Inkarnation des Schlangenkönigs Shesha. Über das Leben von Patañjali ist jedoch nichts bekannt, auch nicht wann er gelebt hat. Es ist nicht einmal sicher, ob er eine historische Persönlichkeit war. Indische Tradition setzt ihn mit dem Grammatiker gleichen Namens, der im 2. Jahrhundert vor Christus lebte, gleich. Da der Wortschatz des Grammatikers und des Schreibers jedoch stark von einander abweichen, gehen Indologen davon aus, dass es sich nicht um die gleiche Person handelt. Vielmehr sind sie aufgrund bestimmter Formulierungen, die sich auch im Spätbuddhismus finden, der Ansicht, das Werk sei im 4. oder 5. Jahrhundert nach Christus entstanden.

Wörtlich übersetzt bedeutet Sutra „Faden“. Das Yoga-Sutra ist also gewissermaßen ein Leitfaden für Yoga, der anders als die Bhagavadgita keine Rahmenhandlung besitzt und auch nicht gesungen wurde. Das Yoga-Sutra von Patañjali besteht aus 195 Sanskrit-Versen, in denen in hochkonzentrierter Form die Essenz des Yoga-Weges gebündelt ist. Es ist eine der ältesten Überlieferungen der Yoga-Tradition. Diese Form des Yoga wird als Raja Yoga oder Ashtanga Yoga (achtgliedriger Yoga) bezeichnet.


Diese klassischen Lehrsprüche bilden die geistige Grundlage aller Yogasysteme. Sie stammen aus Überlieferungen, die wahrscheinlich im 2. Jahrhundert v. Chr. von Patañjali aufgezeichnet wurden. Die Vielfalt der Schulen und Richtungen, die sich im Laufe der Jahrhunderte entwickelt haben, geht auf diese älteste Quelle zurück. Die 195 prägnanten Sentenzen weisen den »königlichen Weg« zur vollkommenen inneren Befreiung durch rechte Erkenntnis. Er führt schrittweise , ohne Askese und gewaltsame Unterdrückung der Denkvorgänge, zum Verständnis der Wirklichkeit. Im Yoga leben heißt, unmittelbar, von Augenblick zu Augenblick, ohne hemmende Bindung an die Vergangenheit, ohne eingeschliffene Gewohnheiten oder eine überkommene Weltanschauung leben. P.Y. Deshpande, ein bekannter Schriftsteller und Publizist, hat sich über vierzig Jahre lang in Theorie und Praxis mit Yoga beschäftigt. Seine Einsichten, die Früchte dieser langjährigen Erfahrung, bilden zusammen mit den von Bettina Bäumer aus dem Sanskrit übertragenen Sutren ein unentbehrliches Standardwerk auf dem Gebiet des Yoga.

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A  G  A  M  A

By Jayaram V

The word „agama“ means authoritative scripture. It was used by > Panini < , the Sanskrit grammarian, as a linguistic term, to describe the formation of certain words. Tantric and Saiva tradition recognizes the agamas as the most authoritative and sacred texts on the methods of worshipping Saguna Iswara or the Brahman with qualities. In a limited sense the agamas are tantric texts containing the principles and practice of Saivism, presented in the form of a teaching by Lord Siva to His consort Parvathi. in contrast, the nigamas, another branch of sacred litetature, depict Parvathi as the teacher and Siva as its recipient. According to the Tantric tradition, the Vedas are nigamas.

Scholars believe that the earliest Agamas were composed during the later Vedic period, when the Vedic rituals were on the decline and Saivism, Vaishnavism and other religious sects were gaining ground. Not all agree with this contention. Some believe the earliest agamas to be much older than the Vedas. There is also an argument that some of the Upanishads and even some portions of the Bhagavadgita were renditions of preexisting agamas. Followers of Siva consider these texts superior to the Vedas. Unlike the Vedas, the Agamas are meant for all castes and sections of society, including women. While the many agamas belong to Saivism and recognize Siva as the Supreme deity, there are also Vaishnava and Shakti agamas which recognize Vishnu and Shakti respectively as the Supreme Iswara.

There is no unanimity as to the actual number of the agamas. Based upon who is recognized as the principal deity, the agamas are divided into Saiva, Vaishnava and Shakti or Tantra agamas. The Pancaratra Agamas and the Vaikanasa Agama belong to the Vaishnava tradition. The Saiva agamas, which contritubuted to the popularity of the southern school of Saiva Siddhanta philosophy and northern school of the Pratyabhijna system of Kashmir Saivism, are divided two distinct categories, namely the 28 Saiva Siddhanta Agamas and 64 Agamas belonging to both the Nakulisa Pasupatha and the Kashmiri Trika schools of Saivism. The > Kaula < , > Mishra < and> Samaya agamas < (and siddhanta texts)  are considered to be part of the Shakti tradition. The Vaishnava agama is further divided into Pancharatra and Vaikanasa Agama. The smartas, who acknowledge the Vedas as the supreme and follow the Vedic tradtion, recognize the Agamas, but don’t necessarily adhere to them. In the Malay languages the word Agama literally means religion. The Agamas are also sometimes known as Tantras.

Buchtipp: Bettina Bäumer, Trika: > Grundthemen des kaschmirischen Sivaismus <

There is no unanimity as to what constitue the 28 Agamas of the Saiva Siddhanta schools. According to one classification, of the 28 agamas, ten represent the school of Advaita (monism) or Sivabheda and the rest the school of Vishishtadvaita (qualified monism)or Rudrabheda. The 28 Agamas are listed below:

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Moderne Physik – Klang & Schwingung






Nicht nur in der modernen Physik, bzw. neuesten naturwissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen hat Masse keine materielle Substanz mehr, und man ist daher nicht mehr der Ansicht, dass Teilchen aus irgendeinem Grundstoff bestehen, sondern sie sind Energiebündel… diese dynamischen Strukturen oder Energiebündel bilden die stabilen nuklearen, atomaren und molekularen Strukturen, die die Materie aufbauen und ihr den Anschein geben, als bestünde sie aus einer festen materiellen Substanz. Doch gehen wir zurück zur Auffassung der Tantras hinsichtlich dieses Themas:

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saundaryalahari-flood of beauty


The Saundaryalahari

The Saundaryalahari (Flood of Beauty), traditionally ascribed to Shankaracarya (Vedanta), is one of the principal texts of Shakta Tantrism, known all over India. The text, translation, and notes are from:
The Saundaryalahari; or, Flood of Beauty – traditionally ascribed to Sankaracarya (vedanta, siehe zB. Beitrag Veden Übersicht, samkhya/vedanta, Yoga Literatur), edited and translated by W. Norman Brown (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1958).

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Kalender in Indien


Als in den 1950-er Jahren in Indien eine Kalenderreform in Angriff genommen wurde, wurden etwa 30 Kalender von überregionaler Bedeutung gezählt. Diese Vielfalt machte Reformbestrebungen sehr schwer, und der schließlich vorgeschlagene Nationalkalender hat bisher keinen Eingang in das bürgerliche oder religiöse Leben der Menschen Indiens gefunden. Neben den hier beschriebenen Kalendern findet unter den Muslimen Indiens natürlich der islamische Kalender Anwendung.

Im klassischen Ayurveda wird mit dem Mondkalender gearbeitet:

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