Search results for buddhism (131)

12th Religious Conference of Four Major Schools of Tibetan Buddhism and Bon Tradition Underway

Sikyong Dr. Lobsang Sangay with heads of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism and Bon religion at the inaugural session of the conference.

 
Tibet.net Updates ‏@tibet_net  

 

China tightens access to information in Tibetan monasteries http://goo.gl/fb/Z64N57

 

TED Concludes Pre-incubation Program for First batch of Entrepreneurs http://goo.gl/fb/bevaA1

 

12th Religious Conference of Four Major Schools of Tibetan Buddhism and Bon Tradition… http://goo.gl/fb/3H7In3

 

Sting, Peter Gabriel, Kate Bush Set for Dalai Lama Birthday Tribute http://goo.gl/fb/mHXH0K

 

His Holiness the Dalai Lama to Receive 2015 Liberty Medal http://goo.gl/fb/U038Dr

Korean Buddhism Jogye 2012 Conference

 Jogye Order Host 2012 WFB Conference

 www.ohchr.org/HRDay2010.aspx  www.hrw.org/north-korea

www.koreanbuddhism.net 

www.attacreport.com/concentration camps

 www.wfp.org/countries/Nkorea

www.buddhachannel.tv/Won Buddhism

Korean Buddhism is distinguished from other forms of Buddhism by its attempt to resolve what it sees as inconsistencies in Mahayana Buddhism. Early Korean monks believed that the traditions they received from foreign countries were internally inconsistent. To address this, they developed a new holistic approach to Buddhism. This approach is characteristic of virtually all major Korean thinkers, and has resulted in a distinct variation of Buddhism, which is called Tongbulgyo („interpenetrated Buddhism“) by Korean scholars. Korean Buddhist thinkers refined their predecessors‘ ideas into a distinct form. Korean Buddhism has also contributed much to East Asian Buddhism, especially to early Chinese, Japanese, and Tibetan schools of Buddhist thoughts. Read More: > HERE <

The Jogye Order, officially the Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism (대한불교조계종, 大韓ä敎 曹溪宗) is the representative order of traditional Korean Buddhism with roots that date back 1,200 years to Unified Silla National Master Doui, who brought Seon (known as Zen in the West) and the practice taught by the Sixth Patriarch, Huineng, from China about 820 C.E. In 826, the „Nine Mountains of Seon“ adopted the name „Jogye-jong“ and all were instrumental in the development of the nation during Unified Silla and thereafter. During Goryeo, National Masters Bojo Jinul and Taego Bou led major Seon movements. The Jogye Order was thus established as the representative Seon order until the persecution of the Joseon Dynasty. Read More: >HERE<

Korea (Korean: 한국 Hanguk [hanɡuːk] or 조선 Joseon [tɕosʌn]South and North Korea, respectively (cf. etymology)) is a territory of East Asia that was formerly unified under one state, but now divided into two separate states and a region in northeastern Asia. Located on the Korean Peninsula, it is bordered by China to the northwest, Russia to the northeast, and is separated from Japan to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan (East Sea).

Korea was united until 1948, when it was split into South Korea and North Korea. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea, is a free market, democratic and developed country, with memberships in the United Nations, WTO, OECD and G-20 major economies.

 North Korea, officially the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, has a centrally planned industrial economy, with memberships in the United Nations, ISO, Non-Aligned Movement, ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), and other international organizations. Read More: >HERE <

The 2012 World Fellowship of Buddhist Conference will be held in Korea hosted by the Jogye Order. The decision came during the 25th WFB Conference on November 13 in Colombo, Sri Lanka.

The 26th WFB Conference will be organized by the Jogye Order and the Jogye Order’s Central Council of the Laity. The plan is to have the conference coincide with the 2012 World Expo in Yeosu City and the very popular Lotus Lantern Festival.

Director of Social Affairs Ven. Hyegyeong said, “The reason for coinciding the conference with the expo and the Lotus Lantern Festival is that it would be a good way to show the world the beauty and richness of Korean Buddhist tradition and to promote Korean Buddhism. We will have a tentative six-day visit plan with half the time spent in Yeosu City and the conference, and the other days to see the Lotus Lantern Festival.”

Jogye Order plans to make strong efforts in seeing the conference to be successful. In this way, the success can be carried over to the 2013 World Religious Leaders Conference, also hosted by the Jogye Order.

The WFB first began in May of 1950 in Sri Lanka as Buddhist representatives from 27 countries met to transcend sectarian barriers. This year marks the 60 year anniversary. Now, 153 WFB branches in 40 countries exist to unify Buddhists from all traditions and uphold the Buddha’s teachings. The conference is held every two years. There are seven WFB branches in Korea including the Jogye Order and the Jogye Order Central Council of the Laity.

Korea hosted the 17th WFB Conference in 1990 in Seoul. Now the conference returns after 22 years. The opportunity to host the WFB conference will be a chance to showcase the excellence of Korean Buddhism and share with the world Korean Buddhist cultural treasures such as templestay, temple food, and the Lotus Lantern Festival.

The 25th WFB Conference, with the theme “Solving Social Issues with Dharma,” was held on November 13 in Colombo. Along with the conference, a Board of Directors Meeting, a symposium, and the 60-year Commemoration Ceremony were held until November 17. More than 500 representatives from North Korea, Japan, China, Thailand, Taiwan, South Korea, and other countries attended this year’s conference.

  

Documents the creation of a Buddhist painting by the Buddhist nun artist, Seol Min, who has dedicated her life to keeping the tradition of Buddhist painting alive. / The secret of Korean temple cooking popularity is in its eco-friendly and traditional recipes. Recently, a temple of Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism opens the restaurant for temple cooking. All the recipes are based on Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism, but its color and shape has been upgraded even for non-believers to enjoy its taste. Arirang Today will listen to the Buddhist nun, Dae-an, who has been putting an effort to achieve the internationalization of Korean cuisine in temple cooking.

The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) continues to face regular, significant food shortages. A joint Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and World Food Programme Crop and Food Security Assessment Mission took place between September 21 and October 2 this year to assess the main cereal harvest and estimate the food gap for the marketing year 2010/2011.

The mission estimates that DPRK faces a cereal import requirement for the 2010/11 marketing year (Nov/Oct) of 867,000 metric tons.

The mission recommended that 305,000 tons should be provided as international food assistance to about five million of the most vulnerable people, including young children, their mothers, the elderly, and poor people in regions with high malnutrition. Planned commercial imports by the government (325,000 tons) and recommended food assistance do not fill the entire uncovered food deficit, and leave a gap of 237,000 tons. The gap will need to be filled by the DPRK government and direct assistance from other countries.

While malnutrition rates among children have decreased the last decade, one in every three children remains chronically malnourished or ‘stunted’, meaning they are too short for their age, and a quarter of all pregnant and breast-feeding women are also malnourished. The mission noted that a small shock in the future could trigger a severe crisis which would be difficult to contain if these chronic deficits are not effectively managed. One in four pregnant or breastfeeding mothers is also malnourished.

17 November 2010 – > North Korea Faces Serious Cereal Deficit, Food Shortages and Undernourishment to Continue

At the household level, assessments during 2008 and 2009 indicated a marginal improvement in food security. However, current rations provided by the DPRK government can meet less than half of the daily calorific needs for the 68% of the population receiving public food rations.

Most people struggle to make up the deficit through alternative means as they do not have the necessary purchasing power.

 
 
  
Jogyesa is the chief temple of the Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism. 
 
  • http://www.minesandcommunities.org
  • The Buddhist World: Buddhism in East Asia – China, Korean, Japan
  • Undercover in Tibet – Torture under Chinese Rule
  • http://library.duke.edu/research/guides/korean-studies/philosophy-religion.html
  • http://www.international.ucla.edu/buddhist/resources
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traditional_Korean_medicine
  • Meet Buddhism in Korea, studies and friends at fb <
  • Meet Tibetan Nuns Project, studies, friends, fans at fb http://www.tnp.org
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  • http://en.wikinews.org/wiki/World_Food_Program_told_to_leave_North_Korea
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    BUDDHISM: THERAVADA AND HINAYANA

    Thomas Fröhlich

    www.hospiz-oebr.at

    www.forestsangha.org

    www.theravada-buddhismus.at

    www.buddhismus-austria.at

    www.buddhismus-deutschland.de

    Theravada (PÄli: थेरवाद theravÄda, Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravÄda); literally, „the Teaching of the Elders“ or „the Ancient Teaching“, is the oldest surviving Buddhist school. It was founded in India. It is relatively conservative, and generally closest to early Buddhism, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population ) and most of continental Southeast Asia (CAMBODIA, LAOS, BURMA, THAILAND). Theravada is also practiced by minorities in parts of southwest CHINA (by the SHAN and TAI ethnic groups), Vietnam (by the KHMER Krom), Bangladesh (by the ethnic groups of Baruas, Chakma, and Magh), Malaysia and Indonesia, while recently gaining popularity in Singapore and the Western World. Today Theravada Buddhists number over 100 million worldwide, and in recent decades Theravada has begun to take root in the West and in the Buddhist revival in India. Read More: > HERE <

    HÄnayÄna (हीनयान) is a Sanskrit and PÄli term literally meaning: „the low vehicle“, „the inferior vehicle“, or „the deficient vehicle“. The term appeared around the 1st or 2nd century CE. Its use in scholarly publications is controversial.There are differing views on the use and meaning of the term, both among scholars and within Buddhism. Read More: > HERE <

    THERAVADA AND HINAYANA – As mentioned above, the Theravada tradition is based on the set of teachings decided by the Third Council to contain the teachings of the Buddha.

    Shri Lanka has played a central role in preserving the Theravada scriptures and practices. After the Third Council, the Tripitaka collection of sutras were taken to Shri Lanka. Most of these were originally in the Pali language, but some were compiled in other languages. Through the centuries however, all teachings were translated into Pali (around 35 BCE). Initially, most ordained Sangha were known as parivrajahas (wanderers). They would assemble during the rainy season when travelling became problematic. Gradually, buildings were donated and the Sangha became more static. Just a century after the Buddha passed away, monasteries became the main mechanism for preservation of the teachings. Also extra monastic rules were introduced. Only during one short period in history Buddhism was banned in Shri Lanka, but it was later restored with teachings from Thailand which in turn had originated in Shri Lanka. The main countries where the Theravada tradition is currently alive and well in Shri Lanka, Thailand, Burma, Cambodia and Laos.

    The teachings on the Four Noble Truths and meditation form the basis of Theravada practice. – The term Hinayana (smaller Vehicle) appeared only much later, around the first century CE, when teachings of a different nature appeared which were called Mahayana (greater Vehicle).

    In India, non-Mahayana or Hinayana sects developed independent from the form of Buddhism existing in Sri Lanka. Today, there is no Hinayana tradition in existence anywhere, although Theravada could be called the tradition most like Hinayana. The ultimate goal of the Theravadin and other non-Mahayana practice is to attain the state of an Arhat, as Buddhahood is considered practically unachievable for nearly everyone within this aeon.

    Although helping other sentient beings is accepted as an important Buddhist practice, the main motivation for following the spiritual path is to achieve liberation for oneself – Nirvana.

    Due to the negative connotation of the term Hinayana, the World Fellowship of Buddhists decided that the term Hinayana should be dropped to refer to Buddhism existing today, and the term Theravada should be applied, also because the term Hinayana has a negative connotation.

    MAHAYANA – The Mahayana appears to have developed between the 1st Century BC to the 1st Century CE. About the 2nd Century CE Mahayana became clearly defined. Master Nagarjuna developed the Mahayana philosophy of Sunyata (emptiness) and proved that everything is ‚Void‘ (not only the self) in a small text called Madhyamika-karika. After the 1st Century CE., the Mahayanists took a definite stand and only then the terms of Mahayana and Hinayana were introduced.

    Around the first century CE, teachings of a different style appeared. The terms Mahayana and Hinayana appeared in the Saddharma Pundarika Sutra or the Sutra of the Lotus of the Good Law. Of great influence to the development of the Mahayana was Master Nagarjuna (2nd Century CE) who is known for his profound teachings on the philosophy of emptiness. About the 4th Century CE, the Masters Asanga and Vasubandhu wrote enormous amount of works on Mahayana. The Mahayana teachings were mainly written down in Sanskrit, and are now called the Mahayana Sutras.

    A clear division arose between the schools following the traditional teachings and Mahayana. Although the main philosophical differences may be small, they have profound consequences for the practices involved.

    The Mahayana philosophy is based on the older tradition and fully accepts these teachings, but not all traditional interpretations. One of the most important aspects is for example the traditional interpretation that Buddhahood can be achieved only by very few people. The Mahayana teaches instead that every sentient being (being with a mind) can become a Buddha, the only thing preventing our full enlightenment is the failure to improve one’s own actions and state of mind. The Mahayana tradition claims that all their sutras have been taught directly by Shakyamuni Buddha or have at least been inspired by the Buddha.

    The main Mahayana motivation is to lead all sentient beings to enlightenment. Liberation from cyclic existence (Nirvana) and Buddhahood for oneself are regarded simply as fortunate by-products of one’s efforts to help all beings. In fact, the only possible motivation with which one can become a Buddha is the altruistic wish to lead all sentient beings away from suffering.

    This motivation is reflected in taking an additional set of vows, known as Bodhisattva vows on top of taking Refuge. The main vow is to free all sentient beings from suffering. These vows are not taken for this life only, but for all future lives as well, until this goal is achieved. The main practices of a Mahayanist are summarised in the 6 perfections: the perfection of giving, ethics, patience, joyous effort, concentration and wisdom.

    The Mahayana tradition mainly developed in North India, and spread further North into China and Tibet. In China, Buddhist philosophy and practice was often mixed with Taoist and Confucian aspects. Via China, Mahayana Buddhism also spread to other countries like Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos and Japan. Also, in China the Ch’an tradition evolved, which was introduced into Japan, and there developed into Zen. Also, the very popular Pure Land Buddhism developed, which focuses on being reborn in the Pure Land of Amitabha, mainly through recitation of Amitabha Buddha’s name. Pure Land Buddhism is known as Jodo in Japan.

    In contrast to the current very clear division between Theravada and Mahayana schools, it must be noted that for many centuries, monasteries in India were filled with monks of both traditions. It was considered a very personal decision to choose for individual liberation or Buddhahood. The monastic and ordination rules are virtually the same, and the teachings overlap to a great extent. See for example this important text from the World Buddhist Sangha Council convened by Theravadins in Sri Lanka in 1966.

    TANTRAYANA – Around the 6th. century AD, within the Mahayana tradition the tantras or tantric texts emerged. Based firmly on the Hinayana and Mahayana tradition, the actual philosophy differs only slightly from the Mahayana, but the practices can be quite different.

    Prior to engaging in tantric practices, a proper understanding of the Hinayana and Mahayana philosophy is considered essential. Only then should one obtain initiation or permission from a qualified tantric master to do a specific tantric practice.

    Tantric practices are psychologically very profound techniques to quickly achieve Buddhahood. This is considered important, not for oneself, but because as a Buddha one has the best achievable qualities to help others.The motivation is: ‚the faster I can achieve Buddhahood, the sooner I can be of maximum benefit to others‘.

    Depending on the class of tantra, extra vows may need to be taken on top of the Refuge and Bodhisattva vows. Also, specific commitments may be required like doing a specific retreat, daily recitation of mantras or a daily meditation practice. (For more details see the page on Tantra.)

    In the 8th. century, the Mahayana and Tantrayana (or Vajrayana) traditions of (North) Indian Buddhism were introduced into Tibet. In fact, only in Tibet, Bhutan and Mongolia a virtually complete set of tantric teachings was preserved. The Tibetan tradition can also be found in the Himalayan range of Ladakh (Northwest India), Sikkhim (Northeast India) and Nepal, and in Mongolia (which is virtually identical to the Tibetan tradition). In China and countries like Korea and Japan, remnants of Vajrayana can be found.

    Yoga & Buddhism: Similarities & Differences

    white lotos

    > AIVS – Yoga and Buddhism <

    > YOGA IM BUDDHISMUS <

    > TYS – Hindu, Buddhist, Jaina Yoga <

    Yoga (Sanskrit, PÄli: योग yóga) refers to traditional physical and mental disciplines originating in India. The word is associated with meditative practices in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. In Hinduism, it also refers to one of the six orthodox (Ästika) schools of Hindu philosophy, and to the goal toward which that school directs its practices. In Jainism it refers to the sum total of all activities—mental, verbal and physical.

    Major branches of yoga in Hindu philosophy include Raja Yoga, Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, and Hatha Yoga.Raja Yoga, compiled in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, and known simply as yoga in the context of Hindu philosophy, is part of the Samkhya tradition. Many other Hindu texts discuss aspects of yoga, including Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, the Shiva Samhita and various Tantras.  Read More: > HERE <

    Yoga and Buddhism: Similarities and Differences

    Written by Dr. David Frawley

    Yoga and Buddhism are sister traditions which evolved in the same spiritual culture of ancient India. They use many of the same terms and follow many of the same principles and practices. For this reason it is not surprising that many of us born in the West, particularly after an initial exposure, are apt to regard Yoga and Buddhist teachings as almost identical.

    We may want to combine their teachings or practices accordingly, as if there were no real differences between them. The differences that have existed between the two systems historically, which have kept them apart as separate traditions, are less obvious to us in the West than are their commonalities. Or those who study one of these traditions may be inclined to see the other as a borrowing from it. Those who study Buddhism may find so much similarity in Yoga that they suspect a strong Buddhist influence on Yoga. Those who study Yoga may find so much similarity in Buddhism that they see a strong yogic influence on Buddhism.

    However, the tendency to find commonality between these two great spiritual traditions is not limited to the West. Swami Vivekananda, the first great figure to bring Yoga to the West, examined the Buddhist Mahayana scriptures (Sutras) and found their key teachings and those of Vedanta that he followed to be ultimately in harmony. In recent years with the influx of Tibetan refugees into India, including the Dalai Lama, there has been a new dialogue between the two traditions that is bringing about greater respect between them. Tibetan Buddhists often appear at Hindu religious gatherings and partake in all manner of discussions.

    Nor is the attempt to connect the two traditions limited to modern times. Various synthetic Hindu-Buddhist teachings have existed through history. Buddha himself was born a Hindu and some scholars have argued that Buddhism as a religion apart from Hinduism did not arise until long after the Buddha had passed away. A Shiva-Buddha teaching existed in Indonesia in medieval times, and for many Tantric Yogis it is difficult to tell whether they were Hindus or Buddhists. Buddha became accepted as an avatar of Vishnu for the Hindus during the medieval period, and most Hindus still consider that we live in the age of the Buddha-avatar. Most Hindus accept Buddha as a great teacher, even if they do not accept all Buddhist teachings. Full Article: > HERE <

    Gross Elements in Ayurveda, Yoga, Buddhism

    Sri T.K. Sribhashyam

    www.yogakshemam.net

    > NEWSLETTER <

    > Principle of Tridoshain Ayurveda <

    www.worldyogacouncil.net

    MahÄbhūta is Sanskrit and PÄli for „great element.“In Hinduism, the five „great“ or „gross“ elements are ether, air, fire, water and earth. In Buddhism, the „four great elements“ (Pali: cattÄro mahÄbhūtÄni) are earth, water, fire and air. Read more: > HERE <

    The Principle of Vata, Pitta and Kapha

    The Physiology of Âyurveda is the physiology of the all-important trio, Vâta, Pitha and Kapha or Tridosha as they are generally called. Anybody, even faintly acquainted with Ayurveda, must have frequently come across the terms Vâyu, Pitha and Kapha. But very few have any clear idea of what is really meant by the terms. Every grown-up Indian has some vague idea about Vayu, Pitta and Kapha, and the terms are also used in common parlance. But in the majority of instances, the popular conception is quite different from the medical one. We have ample reference in Ayurvedic literature to the properties and different functions of Vatu, Pitta and Kapha, both in their normal and abnormal conditions. But we have no direct evidence by which we can come to a definite conclusion regarding the ultimate nature of these three substances. All that we can do is to make some inference based on reason, by a comparison of the original texts of Charaka, Sushruta and others and supplemented by such evidence as we can get from non-medical sources.

    Yet Vâtha, Pitha and Kapha are the three entities on which stands the whole foundation of Ayurveda; we have to deal with them from the beginning to the end. Without their proper knowledge, successful treatment of diseases according to the Ayurvedic System is quite impossible. Before proceeding further, it is necessary that we should know something of the conception of the ancient Hindus regarding the physical world. Charaka and Sushrutha have mainly followed the Nyâya-Vaisheshikha and Sâmkhya-­Yoga systems of Philosophy and occasionally the Vedanta view of the five Bhuta.

    The nature and Physical Properties of the Tridosha.

    The fundamental principle underlying the Ayurvedic System of Medicine is that of the Tridosha. In a nutshell, this Principle may be stated as follows:

    There are three Dosha, Vâyu, Pitta and Kapha, which when in equilibrium keep the body sound, but which when vitiated, either singly or in combination, bring about diseases. The method of treatment would therefore be to bring the vitiated Dosha back to normal state, so that the three Dosha are again in equilibrium. We have seen that Âyurveda developed from the four Vedas; it is also regarded as a supplement of the Atharva Veda. But nowhere in the four Vedas can we find any specific mention of these substances.

    It is in the Rig Veda only (1.3.6) that we find what may be regarded as the root idea of Vâyu, Pitta and Kapha :

    “Tri-no asvinÄ divyÄni bhesajÄ trih pÄrthivÄni trirudattamadvyaha;

    OmÄnam samyor-manma kÄyasunave tridhÄtu sarma vahatam subhaspatÄ.

    Here “tridhÄdu sarma vahatam” has been explained thus by the commentator SÄyana: That is to say that when the three Dhâtu – Vâyu, Pitta and Kapha – remain normal and undisturbed, the body is at ease and there is no disease.

    With the advancement of the knowledge, when the science of medicine was systematically studied, Âyurveda as a separate and special subject evolved out of the Vedas. The Principle of Vâyu Pttha and Kapha, was then fully developed and so we find copious reference to these terms in the Mahâ Bhârata and Upanishads.

    Draya explained:

    Dravya is defined as „that which contains in it action and quality and is a co-existent cause“. (C. S. I. 1.50 ; V. S. I. 1. 15). Substances exist and have qualities. We have two kinds of qualities, those which reside in a plurality of objects and those which are confined to individuals. The former are the general qualities (sâmânya), while the latter are distinguished as permanent (guna) and transitory (karma). Inherence is a special kind of relation. Relations are of two kinds. external like, conjunction (samyoga), or internal like inherence (samavâya). The first is regarded as a quality and the second is made a separate category.

    The Vaisheshika believes that a substance is something over, and above the qualities. It is anxious to assert the existence of something which has qualities without being itself a quality, for we predicate qualities of substances and not qualities of qualities. Nor can it be said that we predicate one quality of a group of qualities. But since a substance cannot be conceived apart from qualities, it is defined as possessing qualities.

    Qualities and action exist by combination with substance. Without substance, there were no qualities or action. Similarly, genus and species are correlative and are not absolute, except in the case of the highest genus which is Existence (bhâva) and the lowest species which is vishesha or individual characteristics appertaining to and inhering in the external substances. Genus and species, therefore, exist by combination with substances. Without substances, there were no genus and species. Similarly Samavâya or combination is “the intimate connection in the inseparably connected things“, e.g. parts and wholes of substances and their qualities, of action and the seat of action of genus and species and substances in which they reside, and of external substances and their ultimate differences. Without substance, then, there were no combination. Substance or dravya, therefore, is the fundamental reality.

    Dravyas are nine in number, viz. the five Bhutas,

    • 1. ­Prthivi (Earth)
    • 2. Apah (Water)
    • 3. Tejas (Fire)
    • 4. Vâyu (Air)
    • 5. Âkâsha (Ether

    and

    • 6. âtman (Soul)
    • 7. Manas (Mind)
    • 8. Dish or dik (Space) and
    • 9. Kâla (Time).

    These nine substances are intended to comprise all corporeal (murta) and incorporeal (a-murta) things. Ether, time and space are all-pervading, have the largest dimensions and are the common receptacles of all corporeal things. Soul and mind, Ether, time and space, Air and the ultimate atoms are not ordinarily perceptible, (V. S. VIII. 1.2).

    [It must be clearly understood here that whenever we use the terms Earth, Water, Fire, Air and Ether, we use them only to denote the five bhutas and not in the sense of ordinary earth, water, air, fire or ether]

    Charaka says that dravyas are of two varieties, – animate and inanimate. Those endowed with the senses are called animate; those devoid of senses are inanimate,­ (Sendriyam cetanam dravyam, nirindriyam acetanam, C. S. I. 1. 47.)


    The Nature Of Citta According To The Yogasutras Of Patanjali

    The five Mahâbhutas

    The five Mahâbhuta originate from the five Tanmâtra. Of these, the Prthivi helps the other four by being their support. Ap helps the other four by moistening. Tejas helps the others by ripening. Marut helps by drying and Akâsha helps the other four by giving space. Prthivi is possessed of five qualities, – sound, touch, colour, taste and smell. Ap is possessed of four qualities,- sound, touch, colour and taste. Tejas is possessed of three qualities, sound; touch and colour. Vâyu is possessed of two qualities, – sound and touch. Akâsha has only one quality, sound.

    We thus get :

    Âkâsha/ Aether – (Sound-essence)

    Vâyu/ Air – (Sound + touch)

    Tejas/ Fire – (Sound + touch + colour)

    Ap/ Water – (Sound + touch + colour + taste)

    Prthivi/ Earth – (Sound + touch + colour + taste + smell).

    Though Earth contains a number of qualities; we yet say that it has smell, on account of the predominance of this quality. If water and other substances besides earth possess smell, it is because particles of Earth are mixed up with them. We cannot think of Earth without smell, though we can so think of air and water. The special quality of Water is taste. Fire has for its special quality luminosity. Air is invisible, though limited in extent and made up of parts. The discrete nature of Air is inferred from the movements in the air, which would not be possible were Air an absolute continuum devoid of parts (V. S. II.1.14). Its existence is inferred from its special quality of touch and it is said to be a substance, since it possesses quality and action.

    According to the Vaisheshika, the ultimate constituents of the concrete things of earth, air, fire and water are called paramânu or atoms.

    Charaka has pointed out the primary qualities or special physical characters, of the five Bhuta in a different way. He says, „The characteristic of Earth is rough­ness, that of Water liquidity, of Air expansion, of Fire heat and that of Ether non-resistance. All these qualities are perceived through the sense of touch,“ -„Sparshendriya gocharam“, (C. S, IV. 1,27 ).

    Bhutas are not elements

    The Bhuta has been translated as ‚element‘. This is misleading. Bhutas are not elements and paramânus are not atoms or molecules in the modern sense of the terms. Modern writers laugh at the idea of calling the earth, water, fire, air and ether elements, ignoring the fact that a Bhuta is just an element, in the chemical sense of a substance that cannot be further analysed. „On referring to any Vaisheshika manual, it will be clear that what is ordinarily known as ‚earth‘, is not regarded by the Vaisheshika to be an ‚element‘ – in the technical sense; if it were so regarded, then alone could the Vaisheshika view be stigmatised as primitive and unscientific. The touch of ‚Earth‘ in its pure state is said to be ’neither hot nor cold’ so also the touch of ‚Air‘ and when asked why the ordinary earth and ordinary air are found to be very far from ’neither hot nor cold‘, the Vaisheshika explains that this is due to earth and air being mixed up with particles of Fire or Water, which make them hot or cold. From this, it is clear that what is regarded as ‚element‘ is not the earth etc., as we know and see them, but as they exist in their pristine and pure state, un­mixed with any other substances“. Just as an atom of a chemical element has no free and independent existence, so also the five Bhutas in their pure state are never found in nature. What we find are compounds of the five Bhutas, mixed together in different proportions; that is to say, all gross matter is penta-bhautika.

    Psychological explanation of the five Bhutas

    The question may be asked, why were only five Bhutas postulated? Now, God has endowed us with only five senses, neither more nor less. The external world can only be apprehended by us through these five senses or Indriya. There is no other source which can give any information about matter which constitutes the physical world. For one particular lndriya, there is only one particular sense-object. The srotarerdriya or the sense of hearing can appreciate only the quality of sound. Sound, touch, colour, taste and smell are the five sense-objects corresponding to the five senses. These are gunas, and as such cannot exist independently by them­selves, but must have some receptacle. In this way, we get five receptacles,- the five Bhutas.

    What, for example, is the ‚atom‘ of Earth, but an ultimate material substratum of odour. On the other hand, let us take the case of the coloured gas Chlorine. It can be felt, smelt, tasted and seen. We are cognizant of its existence by at least four different sensory impressions; therefore it is not an element in the Vaisheshika sense of the term; it must be composed of at least four different Bhuta. The Hindu classification of matter into five Bhuta is, therefore, not at all absurd, as is supposed by many scientists who have an altogether different viewpoint.

    According to Dr. Ganganath Jha, what the Vaisheshika means by saying that there are five Bhuta, is that there are five states of matter, viz., solid (Earth), liquid (Water), gaseous (Air), luminous (Fire) and etheric (Akâsha). It is better, however, to regard them as the Ashrayas or repositories of the five qualities,. viz. of smell, etc.

    The confusion has been introduced by denoting the Bkutas by terms which are also used with reference to external objects of matter, such as earth, etc. But, as Hoffding says, „because language was developed under the influence of attention directed to the external world, we find that expressions for mental phenomena were originally taken from the material world. The inner „World behind is denoted by symbols borrowed from the „outer world of space“.


    Contemplation of the elements (dhatu, mahabhuta) as a meditation method taught by the Buddha.

    Hindu Medicine and the Vedas:

    There is no doubt that the germ of Hindu medicine was laid in the Vedas. Because in all the four Vedas, – Rig, Yajur, Sâma and Athravana, – we find ample reference to medicine, drugs, methods of treatment and descriptions of the different parts and organs of the human body.

    For example, reference is made to Dhanvantari in R.V IX. 112. In R.V. 1.117. 13 and V.74.5, we find that Chyavana was rejuvenated by the Ashvini Kumâras. ln 1. 23. 19, the medicinal properties of water are described. Reference is made to phthisis in R. V. X. 163 and to the organs of the body in R. V. III. 36.8, III. 50. 6, VI. 53. 8, VIII. 1. 26, X. 1. 84, X. 163 and X. 186. Similarly in the Sâma Veda II. 10. 70. 184 and in the White Yajur Veda XII.74. 75 and the 16 hymns that follow, we have reference to the medicinal properties of drugs.

    But it is the Atharvana Veda which deals more fully with medicine. Here we have reference not only to mineral and vegetable drugs but also the causes of diseases (A. V. I. 23, 24, 36 ). „This work in its tenth book contains“, as Dr. Hroernle notes, „a hymn (the second) on the creation of man, in which the several parts of the skeleton are carefully and orderly enumerated in, striking agreement more specially with the system of Atreya as contained in Charaka’s Compendium“.

    It is for this reason that the Ayurveda is generally included in the Atharvana Veda. This is also distinctly indicated by both Charaka and Sushruta. Sushruta (1. 1) calls it the Upânga of Atharvana Veda; and in Charaka ­Samhiaf (1. 30), we find that Atreya’s advice to his pupils was to have faith in the Atharvana Veda, because the latter deals with the treatment of diseases in the form of religious rites, sacrifices, oblations, expiation, fasts, the chanting of hymns, etc.

    If we take the time of the Vedas to be 2000 B. C., we see that as early as this, the practice of medicine was in a very crude form. Nowhere in the four Vedas, can we find any mention of the term ‚Ayurveda‘. So we may take it that when later on the medical side of the Vedas was more fully and systematically developed, it formed a separate subject by itself and came to be known as Ayurveda.

    (mehr …)

    Real Buddhism Sri Lanka: e-learning

    gal-vihara

    >> BUDDHA NET SRI LANKA – STUDIES <<

    >> THERAVADA BUDDHISM SCHOOL VIENNA. <<

    Sri Lanka is the oldest continually Buddhist country, Theravada Buddhism being the major religion in the island since its official introduction in the 2nd century BC by Venerable Mahinda, the son of the Emperor Ashoka of India during the reign of King.

    Real Buddhism Sri Lanka: BUDDHISM IN  SRI LANKA

    Sri Lanka is the oldest continually Buddhist country, > Theravada Buddhism < being the major religion in the island since its official introduction in the 2nd century BC by Venerable Mahinda, the son of the Emperor Ashoka of India during the reign of King Devanampiya- Tissa. Later, the nun Sanghamitta, the daughter of Asoka, was said to have brought the southern branch of the original Bodhi tree, where it was planted at Anuradhapura. From that day up to the present, the Buddhists in Sri Lanka have paid and are paying the utmost reverence to this branch of the Bodhi Tree under the shade of which the Master achieved Enlightenment.

    Monks from Sri Lanka have had an important role in spreading both Theravada and Mahayana throughout South-east Asia. It was in Sri Lanka, in the 1st century AD during the reign of King Vatta Gamini that the Buddhist monks assembled in Aloka-Vihara and wrote down the Tripitaka, the three basket of the Teachings, known as the Pali scriptures for the first time. It was Sri Lankan nuns who introduced the Sangha of nuns into China in 433AD. In the 16th century the Portuguese conquered Sri Lanka and savagely persecuted Buddhism as did the Dutch who followed them.

    >Meet Real Buddhism Sri Lanka in facebook <

    (mehr …)

    Lama Thubten Yeshe – Discovering Buddhism

    Discovering Buddhism

     www.lamayeshe.com 

    >> DISCOVERING BUDDHISM <<

    The Discovering Buddhism Series is designed to be viewed on its own or as supplementary material for anyone following the Discovering Buddhism at Home program. Each of the thirteen 30 minute segments is introduced by Richard Gere or Keanu Reeves.

    >> Lama Thubten Yeshe << (1935–1984) was a Tibetan lama who, while exiled in Nepal, co-founded Kopan Monastery (1969) and the Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition (1975). He followed the Gelugpa tradition, and was considered unconventional in his teaching style.

    Lama Yeshe was born near the Tibetan town of Tolung Dechen, but was sent to Sera Monastery in Lhasa at the age of six. He received full ordination at the age of 28 from Kyabje Ling Rinpoche. Jeffrey Paine reports that Lama Yeshe deliberately refused the geshe degree, despite having studied for it:

    Many years later, when pressed why he had shunned this prestigious degree, he would laugh: „And be Geshe Yeshe?“[1]

    Sera Monastery did award him an honorary geshe degree in the early 80s. He also used to joke that he was a Tibetan hippie: „I dropped out!“

    YOGA IM BUDDHISMUS

    Siddhartha Gautama Founder of Buddhism

    *

    > The Eight-Fold Path Of Bhagwan Buddha <

    Compiled by: Prabhat Tiwari

    Lord Buddha was a contemporary of Maharshi Patanjali, the propagator of the ‘Yoga Darshana’. Just as Patanjali suggested that yoga has eight steps (ashtanga yoga) with a final goal as ‘samadhi’, Buddha too has suggested eight steps to ‘samadhi’. – Editor

    Buddha says, “Wrongs are many, right is one, so how can the right be against the wrong? Right is that which is not your invention. It is already there. If you go away from it you are wrong, if you come close to it you are right. The closer you are, the more right you are. One day, when you are exactly home, you are perfectly right.”

    Samyak and samadhi both start with the same root sam (equal). Samyak is the step towards samadhi. So seven steps ultimately lead to the final step ‘samadhi’. ‘Samadhi’ means – now everything has fallen in tune with existence.

    These eight steps are just indicators of how to come to that ultimate courage where you take the quantum leap and you simply disappear. When the self disappears, the Universal Self arises.

    > The Noble Eightfold Path < describes the way to the end of suffering, as it was laid out by > Siddhartha Gautama < . SiddhÄrtha Gautama (Sanskrit, m., सिद्धार्थ गौतम, SiddhÄrtha Gautama; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual teacher in the north eastern region of the Indian subcontinent who founded Buddhism.

    It is a practical guideline to ethical and mental development with the goal of freeing the individual from attachments and delusions; and it finally leads to understanding the truth about all things. Together with the Four Noble Truths it constitutes the gist of Buddhism. Great emphasis is put on the practical aspect, because it is only through practice that one can attain a higher level of existence and finally reach Nirvana. The eight aspects of the path are not to be understood as a sequence of single steps, instead they are highly interdependent principles that have to be seen in relationship with each other.

    * Buddha mit seinen ersten 5 Schülern unter dem Bodhi Baum, Pappel-Feige (Ficus religiosa), auch Buddhabaum, Bobaum oder Pepul-, Pepal-, Pipul- oder Peepalbaum. 

    (mehr …)

    #China : Relentless Crackdown on #Taoist Temples Continues

    Top Myanmar generals barred from entering US over Rohingya atrocities

    #EducationDay

    THE REFUGEE’S RIGHT TO RETURN HOME

    Homage to the architect of Indian Constitution

    Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (Marathi: डॉ.भीमराव रामजी आंबेडकर [14 April 1891 — 6 December 1956), also known as Babasaheb, was an Indian jurist, political leader, Buddhist activist, philosopher, thinker, anthropologist, historian, orator, prolific writer, economist, scholar, editor, revolutionary and a revivalist for Buddhism in India. He was also the chief architect of the Indian Constitution. Born into a poor Mahar, then Untouchable, family, Ambedkar spent his whole life fighting against social discrimination, the system of Chaturvarna — the categorization of Hindu society into four varnas — and the Hindu caste system. He is also credited with providing a spark for the conversion of hundreds of thousands of Dalits with his Ambedkar(ite) Buddhism. Ambedkar has been honoured with the Bharat Ratna, India’s highest civilian award. 

    http://www.oldindianphotos.in/2010/07/dr-bhimrao-ramji-ambedkar-chief.html

    k


    KAICIID Board of Directors Call for Solidarity in the Face of Heinous Paris Terror Attacks

    The multi-religious Board of Directors of KAICIID, comprising leading representatives of Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism, released the following statement in response to these horrific attacks.

    We offer our prayers for the victims and our sincere condolences to those who have lost loved ones in these attacks. – See more at: 

    http://www.kaiciid.org/news-events/news/kaiciid-board-directors-call-solidarity-face-heinous-paris-terror-attacks

    DeinAyurvedaNet2 ‏@Net2Ayurveda 

     DeinAyurvedaNet2 ‏@Net2Ayurveda 

     

    KAICIID Board of Directors Call for Solidarity in the Face of Heinous Paris Terror Attacks https://shar.es/15LqUf 

    Saudi-Arabien und Dr. Heinz Fischer – Jetzt ist es ihm schon wieder passiert http://wp.me/p1pE5S-5ZT  via @wordpressdotcom

    DeinAyurvedaNet2 ‏@Net2Ayurveda 

    Und damit diese beeindruckende Entwicklung weitergeht, sollte Heinz Fischer sich jetzt – vielleicht mit dem erfolgreichen Instrument der Geheimdiplomatie – rasch darum bemühen, daß das Bollwerk des Dialoges nach dem neuen saudi-arabischen König benannt wird, damit auch dieser trotz seines hohen Alters ebenfalls sich angespornt weiß, mit jugendlichem Elan das Erbe anzutreten, zum Reformieren ebenso motiviert zu werden, wie sein Vorgänger, der ein großer Halbbruder war …
    DeinAyurvedaNet2 ‏@Net2Ayurveda 
    “We, the multireligious Board of Directors of the International Dialogue Centre, KAICIID, are deeply shocked and mourn the despicable, deliberate murder by terrorists of over 100 innocent victims in Paris on the evening of 13 November 2015. 

    DeinAyurvedaNet2 ‏@Net2Ayurveda 

     

    Read @pulitzercenter’s Flight from #Syria and learn more about #refugees seeking protection

    http://pulitzercenter.org/reporting/flight-from-syria-refugee-stories-ebook …

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    There’s a simple reason why #Pakistan police abuse of #Afghans continues: Impunity. @HRW https://www.hrw.org/node/283357 

    Lotte Leicht ‏@LotteLeicht1

    “What Are You Doing Here?” Police Abuses Against #Afghans in #Pakistan. New @HRW report: https://www.hrw.org/node/283357 

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     Lotte Leicht ‏@LotteLeicht1 

     

    Look out for new @HRW report on continued #torture and mistreatment of detainees in #Bahrain. To be released Nov 23

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    UNICEF ‏@UNICEF

    PHOTOS: Children on the move in Europe face an uncertain futurehttp://uni.cf/1WVJ91f  #refugeecrisis

     

    NEW series from Rabbi Berel Wein – Great Chanukah Gift http://conta.cc/1PyrwAb 

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    #Yemen Houthi forces use banned antipersonnel landmines,causing multiple civilian casualties https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/11/18/yemen-new-houthi-landmine-use …

    Appalling: Half of US‘ governors turn their backs on #refugees fleeing war & persecution. http://bit.ly/1MkhEXd 

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      cariklaus ‏@KlausSchwertner 

    by far the term readers are most familiar with, as this Google trends search emphasizes http://www.duden.de/rechtschreibung/Narrenfreiheit … NEUE DEUTSCHE RECHTSSCHREIBUNG.

     

     

    .@gerard_larcher : „Il faut un équilibre entre sécurité et liberté“. Vous allez voter la prolongation de l’état d’urgence? „Bien entendu“

    Unité de la Nation aux côtés des policiers qui interviennent à l’instant contre le terrorisme @JFAchilli @franceinfo

     

    La question des libertés est importante, il faut un équilibre entre sécurité et libertés. C’est aussi ce que nous défendons @JFAchilli

     Gérard Larcher ن ‏@gerard_larcher 
    J’ai écrit au président de la Républiq pour qu’il me précise les éléments de la réforme constitutionnelle, q ns examinerons point par point.

     

    العمر يكبر بالرغم منا فلتكبر عقولنا وتجاربنا!

     

    صباح الطير المحلق في عليائه ملتمساً فضل خالقه ورازقه الكريم..

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    #Syria Donors Conf planned in London in February. UN co-hosts.

     

    #Syria Donors Conf planned in London in February. UK, Germany, Norway, Kuwait, UN co-hosts. #SyriaDonorConf @Number10gov @UN @GermanyDiplo

     

     

    Terrorismus und Flüchtlinge dürften nicht miteinander vermengt werden, warnt Justizminister @HeikoMaas im @ardmoma http://www.tagesschau.de/inland/reaktionen-paris-anschlaege-101.html …

    Genau. Vielen Dank! https://twitter.com/HeikoMaas/status/666199712702271488

    #Merkel’s message: Don’t draw #refugees fleeing war&terror into debate about #ParisAttacks & anti-terror measures.

    http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-11-15/merkel-warns-against-drawing-innocent-refugees-into-terror-fight …

    See Sofiprotéol-Avril case in Worst #lobbying category & vote in #Pinocchio awards http://www.pinocchio-awards.org/nomine/avril/  #COP21

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    @giusi_nicolini mahnt vor dem Fehler die Opfer mit den Mördern zu tauschen #asylkonferenz mit @AngelikaMlinar

    Nach+Paris-Attentat:+Setze+ein+Zeichen+der+Solidarität+mit+den+Opfern+des+IS-Terrors+#NousSommesUni https://www.campact.de/paris/appell/  via campact

     

    Sehr junges Publikum bei #Asylkonferenz der @neos_eu u. @ALDEParty in Wien. Argumente statt Polemik doch attraktiv

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    #Asylkonferenz @KlausSchwertner Zäune werden dazu führen, dass mehr Menschen sterben weil die Fluchtrouten gefährlicher werden. #KeinZaun

    #EU FMs stress accountability as „essential to uphold rule of law&build confidence“ for all communities of #SriLanka.

    http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2015/11/16-council-conclusions-on-sri-lanka/?utm_source=dsms-auto&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Council+conclusions+on+Sri+Lanka …

     

    Niedersächsische Landesregierung und der “Grüne” Volker Bajus: Es hat keine Chemtrails zu geben! https://saubererhimmel.wordpress.com/ 

     DeinAyurvedaNet2 ‏@Net2Ayurveda 

    Chemtrails über Wien. Eine globale Verschwörung. http://www.vice.com/alps/read/warum-verschwoerungstheorien-gefaehrlich-sind-391 …

     

    Die Achse des Guten: Islam, Integration, Entscheidungen und Folgen http://www.achgut.com/dadgdx/index.php/dadgd/article/islam_integration_entscheidungen_und_folgen …

    https://www.facebook.com/stephan.ozsvath 

     DeinAyurvedaNet2 ‏@Net2Ayurveda  

    The origin of the use of the fish in Buddhism is unknown: Korea — Wooden fish gongs and wind chimes http://www.buddhachannel.tv/portail/spip.php?article17244 …

    I particularly highlighted India’s zero-tolerance against corruption & black money & the steps we have taken against unaccounted money.

    John Oliver über #ParisAttacks, spricht einem irgendwie aus der Seele: „Fuck these assholes“ https://youtu.be/glxh9ZgP7kc  via @iwonalaub

    Saddened at the passing away of veteran actor Saeed Jaffrey. End of an era. Condolences to his family and friends

    .@NestleWatersHQ could take more #water in the #GreatLakes region: Have your say by Nov. 15! http://canadians.org/blog/nestl%C3%A9-could-take-more-water-great-lakes-region-have-your-say … #banbottledwater

    „EU hat Friedensnobelpreis erhalten, ob sie den verdient, wird sich in den nächsten Jahren zeigen. Das liegt auch an uns.“ @KlausSchwertner

    Alternative Nobel Prize Winner Maude Barlow in Vienna to talk about #CETA http://www.attac.at/kampagnen/ttip-ceta-co-stoppen/termine-veranstaltungen.html …

    .@KlausSchwertner: „Ob die EU den Friedensnobelpreis verdient hat, wird sich in den nächsten Monaten zeigen“ #Asylkonferenz

    #MSF emergency coordinator Will Turner will be speaking in #Dublin about search & rescue on the Med, Thurs 19 Nov: http://bit.ly/1NEkecI 

    .@TransparencySi has created a smart way to monitor the path from bill to law in Slovenia http://anticorru.pt/1N6xGHI 

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